Classroom Management Main Page -  EDEL 414  -  EDSE 415


Extended Learning Programs Technical Assistance Workshop Series


provided by: Los Angeles County Office of Education (LACOE)

in partnership with: University of California, Irvine (UCI)

              Collaborative After School Project

Presenter: Dr. John Shindler

california State University, Los Angeles




Behavior Management Strategies for After School Program Staff:

Creating a Healthy Community for Participant Success.


1.     Clarify a vision of the ideal outcome/program.  Where do you want to go?


2.     Creating the “WE” environment.


3.     Making sense of the relationship between leader and participant.

·         Social Frames

·         Understanding the relationship between functional or dysfunctional.


4.     How to develop your covenant/social contract.

·         Collectively created or at least communicated

·         Define “what we do here.” Your Expectations


5.     Understanding the difference between consequences and punishments.

·         Consequences teach lessons, punishments give discomfort

·         Implementation needs to be fair, consistent, private, and anger free.


6.     Dealing with Power struggles


7.     Understanding the Problem student

·         Basic Needs (fun, control, competence, love/belonging),

and what happens if they are not met.

·         Negative Identity Cycle


8.     Use of reality therapy for students who have trouble “buying in.”


9.      Address the problems of the group

·         Participants generate list of problems

·         Discussion of solutions based on the principles introduced earlier.

(packet includes additional appendices)


You Make the Weather for your Program


Your program will be what you make it. You make the “weather” for your program and its participants. If you survey other after-school programs, you will see a great deal of variation.  Each has its own socially constructed reality (see appendix). Some are very positive others are hostile. Some help participants succeed, while in others most participants are just passing time. A leader who knows what he/she wants and how to get it can produce results that will help participants learn and grow and in some cases can change lives.


Creating a Great Program Climate


1.       Begin by creating a vision.  What do you want your program to be like?

(Take 3 minutes to conceive a picture of your “ideal program” in the space on the next page.)


2.  Decide on your role

·        Police/Security Guard

·        Shopkeeper/Supervisor

·        Leader/Tribal Chief


3.  Build your program piece-by-piece. Learn all you can. Try new things.


4.   Develop a positive/effective program:

·        Positive Interactions (Social Frames: See handout on following page)

·        Trust and Safety (Success ~ Risk-taking)

·        Motivation and joy

·        Experiences of Success


5.   Create a sound context for discipline and your leadership.

·        A Social Contract/Covenant

·        Clear responsibilities and boundaries

·        Knowledge and skills for how to succeed with the most problematic cases.


6.    Stick with it! Trust your vision. Keep your focus on long term-outcomes and resist the temptation to revert to quick fixes.  Most of the time you will not be able to see the effects of your efforts for some time.  Give it time.

Management Workshop Reflections Worksheet


My Expectations: What I visualize should (ideally) happen in my program:












Things I’ll do to promote my vision:












Things I’ll do to solve problems:



          Social Frame Development and Classroom Management


Social Frames are culturally embedded, socially-developed, implicit roles and relationships that operate to help society function.  In our society, as well as many others, sociologists have determined that there are at least three main frames that implicitly operate.  They involve the deference shown by a young person, and the deportment shown by a significant adult.  They can be characterized by the following:


Deference (student)

Deportment (teacher/parent)

Student shows RESPONSIBILITY...


They should receive corresponding FREEDOM

Student is SUCCESSFUL....


They should be REWARDED

Student shows LOYALTY and RESPECT....      

They should be shown WARMTH and CARING


Discussion Questions:

1.          What do you think would happen if in any of these three cases a student showed the appropriate deference and did not get the expected response from the teacher?


2.        What if the student was given the response without having shown the deference? For example being given freedom without showing responsibility?


3.        What do you think a student would be like if they were raised without any significant adult giving appropriate deportment, and then placed in a class where these were commonly functioning frames?




Managing Your Behavioral Covenant/Contract


1. Develop your Social Contract/Covenant

·        Group Rules

·        few, and stated positively

·        student involvement/ownership

·        evolving with changing needs

·        Positive expectations

·        in this program/class we . . .

·        Expect what you can accept

·        Teach and test your management


2. Foster Community Relations (see appendix for more ideas)

·        Promote respect – and be intolerant of disrespect

·        Promote teamwork and mutual interdependence

·        Show caring and pride in the groups accomplishments


3. Respond appropriately to contract violations


LEVEL I: Student(s) violates an expectation

·        Be a communicator of the news (not the judge/police)

·        NATURAL and RELATED consequence (not punishment)

·        Consequences need to be CERTAIN and CONSISTENT

·        Follow-up with a recognition of positive behavior


LEVEL II: Student disregards/disrespects the group’s collectively developed covenant

·        Avoid power struggles and hooks

·        Broken Record - simply repeat the consequence

·        Help them solve “their” problem

·        Tough Love - don’t give in, it’s no favor to them



Curwin and Mendler’s 9 Principles

for Consequence Implementation


1.      Always implement a consequence: Be consistent.

2.    Simply state the rule and consequence.

3.    Be physically close: Use the power of proximity

4.    Make direct eye contact. (maybe better said as “make personal contact”).

5.    Use a soft voice.

6.    Catch the student being good.

7.    Don’t embarrass the student in front of the class.

8.    Be firm, but anger free when giving the consequence.

9.    Don’t accept excuses, bargaining or whining.



Consequences vs. Punishments

A Comparison





Intend to teach lessons

Intend to give discomfort

Foster internal locus of control

Foster external locus of control

Are proactive

Are reactive

Are logical and related

Are unrelated and personal

Work in the long-term

Work in the short-term

Promote responsibility

Can promote obedience (but more likely resentment)


Successfully Negotiating a Power Struggle


1.    Do not manufacture power struggles by the way you teach. 

By and large power struggles are a result of a student’s attempt to satisfy an unmet need.  Students who feel a sense of power and control, are making progress toward their goals, are supported by the teacher, have avenues to share concerns, and are given choices and not backed into corners by harsh directives will be much less likely to feel the need to engage the teacher in a power struggle.


2.    Avoid being “hooked in” by the student.

If the student tries to hook you in by making you feel guilty or responsible for their inappropriate behavior, simply ignore the hook and give the responsibility back to the student.  If you become drawn in on a personal level, the student is then in control.


3.    Move into a private (and out of a public) encounter.

If the encounter begins publicly, quickly move it into a private, one-to-one interaction.  A public stage will put the student in a position where they must defend their image, and put you in a position that you feel the need to demonstrate your power.


4.    Calmly acknowledge the power struggle.

It is counterproductive to show anger or to “flex your muscle.”  Instead, with a calm voice, acknowledge to the student that things appear to be heading toward a power struggle, which would surely make any eventual outcome worse.  Ask the student to consider how the situation could end up in a “win-win” scenario.


5.    Validate the student’s feelings and concerns.

Use phrases such as, “I understand that you feel the way you do, but that does not mean that it excuses what you did,”  “Those feelings make sense, I can see why you think that, but . . .“ Feelings are important and valued, but they are beside the point.


6.    Keep the focus on the student’s choice, and simply state the consequence (repeating if necessary).

No matter what “hook” the student tries to use, keep the focus on the fact that the student made a choice to violate the rule/social contract (i.e., “I understand that you feel this is unfair, but you made the choice to ____ and the consequence we decided on for that is ____.”)  They chose to act in the way they did, and therefore they need to accept responsibility.  If the student does not want to accept the logical or agreed upon consequence, then they can make the choice to accept a more significant consequence, such as losing the opportunity to be part of the class/activity.  


7.    Put your emotional energy into constructive matters.

After you have successfully communicated to the student their choices, it is not useful to dwell on this student’s behavior.  Shift your attention back into your teaching.  Model constructive, rational, positive behavior.



We all have basic human needs that must be satisfied or we experience dissonance leading to internal and/or external reactions.  Below is a list of what could be considered 5 of the most basic needs.  Each is examined in terms of what may result when it is not met followed by some teacher behaviors that might facilitate its attainment.



We need to feel that we have some control over our destiny.  If we do not feel we have any power, common internal reactions include becoming withdrawn and passive aggressiveness, while common external reactions include rebellion and hostility.  Teachers can give students a sense of power by giving students choices, giving responsibility for aspects of the class, giving rights, and refraining from bossiness.



We need to feel like we are loved and that we are a wanted part of a group.  If we feel perpetually unloved, alienated or isolated, common internal reactions include a sense of guilt, worthlessness, loneliness, lowered self-esteem, while common external reactions include acting out, over achievement, clowning, and pleasing.  Teachers can give students a greater sense of love and belonging by recognizing unique qualities and talents, creating an emotionally safe, community environment, and showing a sense of caring to the students.



We need to feel a sense of self-efficacy.  If we feel useless, incompetent or unappreciated, common internal reactions include losing motivation and/or a sense of inadequacy, while common external reactions include bragging, acting overly competent, attention getting, and excuse making.  Teachers can give students a greater sense of competence by focussing on progress and not products, recognizing incremental achievement and original ideas, expressing high expectations, and helping students achieve the goals they have set for themselves.



We need to feel like we are autonomous and have freedom of choice.  If we feel too restricted or imprisoned, common internal reactions are to become withdrawn or resentful, while common external reactions include fighting back, active resistance and/or seeking paths around the authority. Teachers can help students experience freedom through supporting autonomy and creativity (when students act responsibly).



We need to be able to have fun and express ourselves.  If we are put in a repressive and/or tedious environment, common internal reactions include boredom, frustration and daydreaming, while common external reactions include making one’s own fun, engaging the teacher in (off-task) games, and hostility.  Teachers can promote students’ sense of fun by the use of humor, providing opportunities for creative play, making learning interesting and a thoughtful use of healthy competition.

Changing the Negative-Identity Behavior Pattern of a Student


Students misbehave for many reasons (i.e., they are bored, repressed, displacing aggression, forgetful, or testing their power, etc.), and in the average class, most students will exhibit only occasional problematic behavior.  Most students see themselves trying to achieve success (i.e., perform successfully, win friends, achieve goals, etc.), using positive behavior (i.e., effort toward some positive goal, trying to do the right things, etc.).

            Occasionally a student will enter your class who has developed a pattern of anti-social behavior.  In these cases, if the problem is not organic (i.e., ADHD, a mental or emotional handicap), it is usually related to the student having developed a negative identity pattern.  The negative identify pattern is the result of the behavior modification cycle depicted below.

                                                Student attempts negative behavior

1                                                                                                Others get upset

and give lots of attention

2                                      Student attempts positive behavior

Others’ language confirms

“role.” Negative self-image develops

Others are not impressed

4Work is unfavorable in

comparison to others


3student chooses more

negative behavior


            The key to transforming a negative-identity cycle into a positive-identity cycle is to first, alter the system, and then second, reconstruct it.  Let’s explore how a teacher could stop the cycle, and then replace the dysfunctional with functional behavior.

            A good starting point is the use of EXTINCTION at stage 1.  Extinction essentially refers to the removal of the reinforcement for the unwanted behavior.  The reinforcement that is motivating the student’s behavior is probably somewhat complex, but it likely includes teachers and students getting annoyed, laughing, being shocked, or giving pity after the student exhibits dysfunctional/inappropriate behavior.  Therefore, the worst thing that you can do is get upset and single the student out.  Try to determine the reinforcing stimuli the student is attempting to achieve with their behavior and remove that stimuli. But be prepared for an extinction burst (the student will exaggerate the behavior for a while when the reinforcement is removed).  The second equally important teacher behavior at stages 1 & 2 is to promote more positive behavior.  That means helping the student meet their basic needs especially competence and love/belonging.  In most cases, a sense of inadequacy is at the heart of this problem.

At stage 2, the most powerful reinforcement is going to come from peers.  It will not be easy, but you need to create an expectation that “in this class, we only encourage each other to act in ways that are positive for ourselves and for the class as a whole.”  This can be accomplished through the teacher’s encouraging language, modeling, and class meetings.

At stage 3, it is critical that the student has explicit/written goals that they are working toward.  These goals should define behaviors that are within the student’s control that they want to exhibit each day (i.e., effort toward getting work done, appropriate behavior, treating others well, positive self-talk, etc.). The student needs to know them well and commit to them.  This is where the practice of SHAPING will be very critical.  The teacher needs to reinforce (i.e., recognize, note in assessments, reward, etc.) attempts by the student to achieve their goals of positive behavior even if they are not entirely successful.  If the teacher reinforces behavior that is close to that desired, the student will be able to build up to full goal achievement.  If the student experience failure and/or a lack of support toward his/her goals at any point they will no doubt revert to their trusty negative ID cycle behavior.

At stage 4, and through out the cycle, it is essential that the teacher be absolutely intolerant of any labeling by peers or the student themselves that promotes a negative-identity (i.e., “In this class, there are no ‘bad kids’, ‘fools,’ ‘dumb kids’ ‘losers, ’failures,’ and especially no helpless victims.”).

Use of Reality Therapy (W.Glasser)


1.    Establish involvement with the student

The student needs to know that the teacher cares, can be trusted, and has their best interest in mind.  When a teacher takes an interest in a student, there is a greater opportunity to communicate intimately/authentically when the time comes. 


2.    Focus on the behavior

Determine what the problem is.  Help the student assess their own condition. Ask questions such as, “what do you think the problem is?” or “what happened?” But be careful not to fix blame or accuse.


3.    The student must accept responsibility for the behavior

Without assigning blame or shame, the teacher helps the student accept responsibility for their actions.  Do not accept excuses.  “Can you accept the responsibility for the choices that you made?”


4.    The student should evaluate the behavior

Ask the student if the behavior was helpful or hurtful? “What did it produce?”  Help the student analyze the situation. “What do you think just happened?”  “What will result if that interaction keeps happening?” “What will help you get what you want and be good for the rest of us?”


5.    Develop a plan

Collaboratively come up with a plan of action that can also act as a contract.  Have the student write it as much as is possible. 


6.    The student must make a commitment to following the plan

The student must show persistent effort toward their goal.  The behavior change will only occur to the degree that the student makes an internal commitment to it.  Keep the locus of control on the student.


7.    Follow up and follow through

If the plan is not working, it should be altered, and/or if the student does not meet their obligations the consequences written into the plan should be implemented.





Appendix A: Creating A Great Program Climate


1.    Start the Year on a positive note

·         Get the participants involved right away.

·         What statement does your first activity make?

·         You are setting off in some direction, it is easier to get going in a direction that you like off the bat than have to work to pull them back in shape later.

·         Make getting to know names a priority.

·         Let the participants know where the ship is heading early.


2.    Creating positive expectations

·         Use the walls to help convey your messages.

·         Display participant work early.  Let them know it is their space.

·         Use bulletin boards to make a statement or provide information.

·         Put up your favorite sayings/quotes/messages.

·         Use language effectively

·         Use your mantras, “in this program we . . .”

·         Make a rule that language needs to be “life giving” and not destructive.  So no put downs, no rudeness, no disrespect or self or other.

·         Use scheduled time for put ups and recognition.

·         Make program expectations as explicit (behavioral/operational/practical) as possible.  Practice them. Use concrete specifics when discussing them. Make them a personal part of the social contract.


3.    Creating Community

·         It has to feel safe and that starts with you first (elementary expect this to take about 2-3 weeks, secondary twice as long at least).

·         Model appropriate personal sharing. Be real yet professional.

·         Avoid sarcasm or negativity

·         Maintain dignity in the way you deal with participants’ egos and persons.

·         Make some personal contact with each participant.

·         Next, participants have to feel safe around one another (this can take over a month in the elementary level and 2+ months for secondary).

·         Accept only “life giving language.”

·         Participants need to practice taking risks (little ones at first and then progressively larger).

·         There needs to be a sense of “We”/Tribe in the class.

·         Ask yourself, what makes them a unit? Why do they need each other?

·         Help them move beyond just societal bonds to communal bonds.

·         Societal bonds = what I agree to do or not do by contract

·         Communal bonds = what we do to make the collective better

·         A tribe needs to have collective successes

·        A tribe defends its identity, its members, and its rituals.

Appendix B: Individual Situational Leadership Model


Research into leadership of individuals and groups suggests that not all groups approach their work in the same manner (Hershey & Blanchard, 1980), and therefore those in the position of leading groups should consider the characteristics of the group and/or the individuals within the group.  Any group or individual could be observed to have more or less of each of these 3 variables:


Variable A: Commitment/Buy-in

This variable includes the students’ level of effort and care they put into the task.  How much of themselves do they invest in the task?


Variable B: Capability/Ability

This variable includes the amount of experience, talent, skill, mental or physical ability, and resource the student or group posses.  What level of means do they bring to the task?


Variable C: Social/Political Capital

This variable involves the environmental conditions that influence the degree of inclusion or social acceptance any student (or group) is currently experiencing.  Factors include popularity, discrimination, social hierarchy, class, and familiarity among group members.  Is the student inside or out, a have or have not?





 (T) Type Classification,  (L) Type of Leadership Needed




(T1) Achiever, (L1) Freedom, resources, encouragement, a chance to share expertise.




(T2) Fighter, (L2) Belonging, empathy, chance to shine, recognition of achievement.




(T3) Worker, (L3) Patience, recognition of effort, academic support.




(T4) Invisible, (L4) Public recognition, High task structure and support.




(T5) Glider, (L5) Motivational, challenging, use successes to develop buy in.




(T6) Follower, (L6) High task structure and support, Lots of motivation.




(T7) Unpredictable, (L7) Recognize achievements, use successes to develop buy in.




(T8) Nothing to Lose, (L8) High structure, high motivation, create personal connection.

+ exhibits quality, - does not exhibit quality


Using the Model

To best succeed with students in learning settings, the following rules may be helpful:

1.        Do not treat +’s like –‘s. Give hard workers (high A) freedom, give high ability students (high B) a chance to be creative and original, and cohesive groups (high C) chances to work collaboratively.

2.       Give students with – areas the support they need in that area.

3.       Use student’s strengths to promote their weaknesses.  For example, if a student is talented (high B) but lazy (low A), challenge them in their strength area, or is hard working (high A) but not too able (low B), give them recognition of their effort and praise for staying with it.

4.       Consider student type when grouping. Consider putting T1 and T3 students in positions where they need to help bring disconnected students (low C) into the group. Do not group all your low C’s together. Partner students with different strengths allowing them to share their gifts.

5.       Problems in area C can be mitigated to a large degree by promoting community and an emotionally safe environment in the class.

6.       Area A is related to a high degree to the meaningfulness and relevance of the work in the class.

7.     Competitive structures are harmful to the promotion of each of the areas especially B.


Appendix C: Examining (the Socially Constructed) Classroom Reality

As it Relates to Program/Classroom Management


Each classroom/program has its own “reality.”  The same group of students, if they were to move from one room and teacher to another, could experience a distinctly different reality.  It may feel different, they may have a different level of motivation, or a different expectation for what is acceptable, and very often they may find themselves consequently acting entirely differently in these different settings.  This can be true even if the explicit expectations (i.e., rules, stated expectations, stated curriculum, and school policies) are essentially the same in the two situations.  While much of what varies from class to class is on the level of the explicit and stated, there is much of this classroom reality that is socially constructed and thus below the level of the explicit.  For a quick confirmation of this principle, ask a few teachers what they expect their class to be and feel like and then observe the actual class.  Most teachers suggest that they want about the same types of things, but what actually manifests itself looks significantly different from one to another.  For example, many classes appear very productive, while others appear chaotic, and some feel very warm, while others feel hostile.  And while much of what any class will be like (especially early in a year) is determined by what the students come into the class with, the primary variable in the equation is the teacher.  The teacher’s choices, words, actions, and affect help create the classroom reality day after day.  As Haim Ginott suggests, to a very great extent the teacher “creates the weather” in the room.


While there are many inter-related factors that contribute to any classroom’s “socially constructed reality,” there are a few factors that can be examined separately.  The handouts provided in class will help make sense of each of these separate factors in more depth.


Social Frames

In most societies there are implicit relationships that exist that help promote functional behavior between adults and children.  Your handout outlines 3 of those relationships or social frames.  First, there should be a relationship between freedom and responsibility.  Children/students should be given freedom to the extent that they are responsible.  Second, there should be a relationship between achievement and rewards.  Children should be given recognition and rewards when they try and/or are successful.  Third, there should be a relationship between students showing loyalty and respect and adults giving back caring and respect.  One could say that any society, household or class is more or less “functional” to the extent that these frames operate successfully.


Teacher use of Power

All teachers need to use some form of power to achieve their goals.  Power is in a sense “the right to ask others to do something.” As teachers we need to ask students to do many things in a day, and we need to make our requests out of some basis of power.  Power comes in many forms, and the forms that one chooses should be consistent with the talents and values one possesses, as well as what will achieve the best learning outcomes for our students.  Your handout outlines 5 types of power that researchers suggest exist in any classroom.  They all need to operate to some degree, but some will be emphasized and utilized more than others for most of us.  These types of power are Position, Attractive/Referent, Reward, Coercive and Legitimate. 

Common “language” exchanged

It could be said that our language defines our reality.  We need words to explain what is.  The language in the classroom is a powerful influence and defines the very nature of what is going on.  This idea may sound very abstract, but examine the language in a classroom.  As you listen and observe, ask yourself these questions; “What is acceptable to talk about in this class?” “What is the purpose of the language used?” “What emotional climate is being created by the use of the language?” “Is the language used consistent with the messages being sent?”  Examine the language used by the 3 teachers in the handout. It is very possible that they all desire about the same explicit outcomes, but do you think their language exchanges will produce similar results?


Unspoken/implicit expectation

We all have biases, experiences, personalities, and life-views that effect the way we look at other people.  Since it could be said that, “we teach who we are,” those internal values/biases inherently play themselves out in subtle and not so subtle ways.  Each teacher must ask him or herself if they treat different types of students differently and/or have different expectations for students based on preconceived notions.  Examine any classroom and observe if it is the case that the commonly manifested stereotypes and biases (and ultimately systems of hegemony) found in society at large are recreated in the classroom reality.  It is doubtful that if a conspicuous and substantial effort is not made to redefine expectations to develop a more equitable and aware climate, they will be.


Interaction of personality/learning style types

After taking the PLSI you should be aware of your learning style.  And after our discussion you should be aware of the finding that if we as teachers do nothing at all to be sensitive to learning style differences then students who are similar to us type-wise will like our courses better and get better grades.  And those who are most different will be in effect penalized because of their type.  These findings raise the question, is one’s classroom reality one where all learning styles are valued and given a chance to express themselves, or is their inherent frustration and repression for certain types?  The more learning style is brought to the level of awareness the less it is part of the hidden curriculum and the better it can be addressed purposefully.

More at:



The “Hidden Curriculum”

The hidden curriculum could be defined as what is learned in totality by students minus what is planned for, and contains many of these areas mentioned earlier to some extent.  But it also includes how what we do in our classes effects students.  There is what we intend to teach, and then there is what our teaching choices and behaviors actually teach.  What we do each day defines “reality” for our students.  What we assess defines that which is valuable to our students.  The systems that we choose to use prepare students to be part of the broader systems in society.





Using Cues, Directions, and Transitions Effectively


1.      Create a picture in your mind that you can live with regarding technical management and then accept nothing less.


2.    Cues: Have a simple, short, audible, regular cue to gain attention (i.e., a short word, a signal, a clap, a sound).  Use the 100% rule whenever you elicit attention with your cue (i.e., you need to have all eyes, ears, and minds ready before you start).  Have an active consequence every time you lose 100% (i.e., stop and wait for a moment, or stop and then start again.)


3.    Directions: Always begin with a cue (w/100% attention), then a finish word (i.e., Go! Now! Start! etc), then a call for any questions, and then give the actual directions (i.e., “Eyes! When I say go, I need to have . . . Are there any questions? (Wait), OK, Go!”).  Use random checks to enhance accountability (i.e., “.. Are there any questions, (wait) OK, Billy what are the groups supposed to do first? (Billy’s response) Good! OK, Go!”)


4.    Transitions:

·        Create a routine for each kind of transition (“OK, Science!”)

·        Practice them (“That was really good, think we could do it faster?”), especially early in the year (i.e., line up many times a day for the first week until it looks the way you want)

·        Sequence-

·        A transition warning (“In 2 minutes we need to . . .”)

·        Cue, “OK.  Time to . . .”

·        A time goal (“This should take about 30 seconds”)

·        A consequence, if the goal was not met (“That took us about 2 minutes, it should have taken about 1, let’s take our things out and try again”). Take action, don’t lecture, shame or complain.

5.  Redirection during an activity

(when a few student are off task)

·        Use positive language that helps teach the desired behavior.

·        Avoid: “______ is not paying attention”

·        Instead: “We are all writing our heading right now” or “we all have our eyes up here.”

·        Take action instead of giving lectures or shaming students.

·        Avoid: “that was not a very good job of ____”

·        Instead: wait, redo, pick up materials, practice doing it over, and if it is really serious, don’t be afraid to follow through in withholding an opportunity.

·        Provide for success/learning.

·        Avoid: being disappointed in what is not happening.

·        Instead: have students practice doing the procedure until everyone feels successful and capable.

·        Shape behavior with recognition and appreciation

·        Acknowledge behavior that is close to your emerging vision.

·        Stop when things have been done well to recognize both the effort and the benefits of showing so much self-control.


6.  Dismissals

·        Practice your routine.

·        Have clear expectations/boundaries for line behavior.

·        Use most “ready” group if dismissing the whole group is problematic. 

·        Try using student of the week as “dismisser.”