DIFFERENTLY THROUGH THE EYES OF SCIENCE
Are synchronized behavior controllers. It measures time. We use it
to tell us when to behave. It’s a discriminative stimulus (Sd).
Street signs: Are to control your
Being controlled only by positive reinforcers (rewards).
A lack of freedom. Control by aversive events (punishers).
When people respond without any apparent source of control and the
extent to hide what controls us.
Differential responding to features of complex stimuli. Our behavior
is being controlled by a certain stimuli.
(of the outside and inside world) In order to be aware, we must
respond differentially to the stimuli which is a product of
CONSCIOUSNESS: Is to be aware
Are part of a behavior. “The skin is not an important boundary”
between the private or public events; it’s all physical (Skinner).
EVENTS: Are replaced with “Private Events”
EVENTS: are events that only your nerves go to.
MORE BEHAVIORAL DEFINITIONS
definitions are defined by the controlling contingencies and not by
Given by Generals, Kings, Emperors. Strongest form of control. Ex.
“Bring My Scepter!” It specifies a behavior and the reinforcing
object. If you don’t obey, you will be punished by someone else. The
listener must obey or he’ll be punished by another person/agent. If
that agent doesn’t obey, then he’ll be punished by another agent.
The agent is also under the same control as everyone else.
We give waitresses order; and sergeants give orders. It’s a mand.
Ex. “I order you to clean that rifle!” If listener doesn’t obey, an
agent will administer punishment. Ex. The sergeant will call the
MP’s. If the MP’s don’t see anything wrong and they refuse to
punish, the sergeant can’t do anything. So the agents (MP’s) are not
under the same control as he solder.
The individual gives the aversive. The individual specifies the
behavior and if the listener doesn’t obey, you administer the
punishment. There are no other agents.
Specifying a behavior without any consequences. Specifies a
reinforcer for the listener, but no aversive control.
Signals a request. “Please” means nothing. It signals if the
listener obeys, it will highly reinforce the asker. The asker
A reinforcer for repaying the “please”.
WELCOME: A reinforcer for “thank you”.
MENTION IT: A reinforcer for “You’re welcome”.
Using “please”, “thank you”, “you’re welcome”, etc. All ways of
providing reinforcement to the listener.
Tells what to do where behavior by the listener will give him
reinforcement. You benefit by the listener being reinforced because
you gain control over them. Ex. You give stock advice and it works,
next time they will come back to see you.
Specifies behavior by the listener that will avoid the onset of an
It eliminates an aversive contingency. Ex. “May I enter?” They are
allowed to enter without the punishment.
Specifies behavior that may reinforce you. Ex. “Take one if you
want.” “Would you like a candy?” It is reinforcing to you if it
reinforced you in the past.
SUPERSTITION: Behavior that goes beyond what it’s been trained
for. A new pieces of behavior that are the result of accidental
REQUEST: Emission of a previously learned behavior under
circumstances that can not be fulfilled. Ex. You say to sleepers to
“wake up”, then later to the dead. Ex. You yell at the team playing
on the television.
PRESTIGE: Someone that gets a higher proportion of reinforcers.
CRAZY: When the controlling stimuli are hidden.