Phil 327 FINAL Fall 2011

Total = 72 points

Part One: True/False and Multiple Choice. Total = 12 points.

Answer all of the following

(1)    Socrates has been charged with (A) corrupting the youth; (B) annoying people; (C) corrupting the youth by teaching against the old gods; (D) acting like a know-it-all.

(2)    According to Lugones, “world”-travel requires (A) A shift in physical location; (B) A shift in self; (C) A shift in playfulness; (D) none of the above; (E) all of the above.

(3)    True/False. “LGBTIQ” stands for “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Interested, and Queer.”

(4)     “Queer” (a) was a derogatory term; (b) is used as a political term that indicates an “in your face” approach; (c) is used by everybody in the LGBT community; (d) A and B; (e) all of the above.

(5)    According to Bettcher, sexual/affectional orientation is (a) a matter of choice; (b) not a matter of choice; (c) A and B; (d) none of the above.

(6)    True/False. Plato would approve of the view that the moral is moral because God says so.  

(7)    True/False. According to Hopkins, all homophobes are really gay.

(8)    According to Trujillo, Chicana lesbians are feared in the Chicano community because (a) they challenge matriarchal values; (b) they challenge patriarchal values; (c) they don’t like men; (d) all of the above. 

(9)     “Transgender” is often used as (a) an umbrella term referring to different kinds of people who violate gender norms; (b) a new way to refer to intersex people; (c) equivalent to the term “transsexual”; (d) a “pathologizing” medical term.

(10)  True/False. According to Bettcher, “transphobia” cannot be completely abstracted from other forms of oppression.

(11) According to Trujillo, (a) it is not possible for lesbians to be mothers; (b) lesbians challenge traditional Chicano views about motherhood; (c) all lesbians want to mothers; (d) none of the above.  

(12) Fausto-Sterling recommends: (a) No unnecessary (cosmetic) surgery on intersex infants; (b) Physicians should assign a PROVISIONAL SEX (based on likelihood that the child will have the corresponding gender identity); (c) Physicians should provide full-disclosure and counseling; (d) None of the above; (e) All of the above.



Part Two: Short Answer. Total = 24 points


(A)   I will ask you to explain four of the following concepts. Use an example when appropriate. (3 points each, 12 points):   “the repressive hypothesis” (Hopkins), “self-identity” (Hopkins); “transgender paradigm” (Bettcher); “irrationality/ignorance hypothesis” (Hopkins), “heterosexism” (Hopkins); “Reflective Equilibrium”; “vendida” (Trujillo); “Intersectionality” (Crenshaw); “transphobia”; “two spirit” ; “queer”


(B)   I will ask four of the following questions (3 points each, 12 points total): (1) Why, according to Bettcher, is the dichotomy between seeing being gay as either “choice” or “innate ” problematic?; (2) Explain how the view that sexual/affectional orientation is innate fails to get at the deeper moral issues; (3) What does Hopkins mean by the conflict between “performance and essence” in masculinity?; (4) What are some problems with the view that God creates morality?; (5) Why does Frye deny that social constraint and gender regulation are the same as oppression?; (6) In what way is the question “What is the cause of homosexuality?” heterosexist?;


Part Three: Review Essay (Total = 12 points)


I will ask you to answer ONE the following questions


(1)    Euthyphro provides four definitions of “piety.” Explain what they are why Socrates thinks that they fail.


(2)    Anderson discusses three definitions of ‘man’ and ‘woman.’ Why does she think that they fail? Are there any difficulties with Anderson’s approach? Discuss. Why does Bettcher think that the terms ‘man’ and ‘woman’ must involve some ‘cultural content’? 



Part Four: Longer Essays (Total = 24 points)


I will ask you to answer TWO the following questions


(3)    Discuss the question whether homosexuality is immoral. Why is the very question heterosexist? Using reflective equilibrium, show how arguments which appeal to “nature” fail to show anything wrong with homosexuality.  

(4)    Explain Hopkins account of homophobia. What are some problems with his account? What is Trujillo’s account? What are some worries about her position? Discuss.   

(5)    What is the medical model of transsexuality? What is the transgender paradigm? Why does Bettcher think these modesl are inadequate in terms of trans politics? Why does she her find that they are problematic from a feminist point of view?

(6)    What is the Basic Denial of Authenticity? Explain the various features involved. What is Bettcher’s explanation of the BDA? What is her argument for it? How does this connect the BDA to the “larger oppressive context”?


Bonus: You may answer ONE of the following questions.


(A)   In one or two paragraphs, explain what the documentary Southern Comfort portrays about the lives of trans people. (6 points).

(B)   In one of two paragraphs, explain what you learned about the concepts of “two spirit” and “historical trauma” from the Red Circle Project class presentation