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Week #7: Lesson Planning, Direct Instruction and Instruction for a Psychology of Success:

 

 

Part I: The Effects of Teaching/Psychological Movement on Classroom Management and Student Motivation

 

Exploring:

·         Movement Psychology

·         Self Theories

·         Basic Needs

·         Success Psychology

·         Motivation

·         Social learning Theory

·         Classroom Applications

 

Introduction:

Recall a situation (group, class, team, committee, etc,) that consisted of a series of meetings in which you felt consistently motivated and eager to take part in the activity.  In this situation, would you characterize what was going on as “going some place?” Now, recall another situation in which you felt your participation was out of a sense of obligation.  In other words, you were just putting in time, and as a result you found yourself finding ways to entertain yourself in ways that may not have been part of the stated agenda. In this second case, how much psychological movement did you feel the situation provided? In other words, how much did you feel like things were “going somewhere” and you were a part of that movement? It is a good bet that it was very little. Recall what you did to meet your needs and entertain yourself?

 

Examining these two situations should give us some insight into the reality of our students and the needs that they bring to our class.  If there is not a sense of movement in our class, it is very likely that (if they are normal) our students will create that movement with behavior that may appear to be a “problem” to the teacher. And as we discussed earlier (i.e., socially constructed reality) these “problem behaviors” could go in the category of problems “manufactured” by the teacher. We can not expect the same level of behavior from powerless, joyless, bored students as we would from student that are “going somewhere” that they feel is meaningful to them.  It has been raised that we as teachers make the weather, and regardless of whether we are aware of it or not, we create more or less psychological movement in our class.

 

Lets examine the components of psychological movement.  There are essentially two factors, 1) the direction of the movement and 2) the rate at which the movement takes place.  The graphic below (figure x) depicts this concept.

 

                     Rate of movement/motivation ->

                                      (~amount of reinforcement, schedule of,

 and proximity to outcome)          

    Define the                                  Determine  your starting point                                     collective goal

 

Variable A: Clarity of the Goal

The sense of movement that a group feels will be related to how well the goal of the activity (or series of activities) is internalized. But as we will see later, all goals will not achieve the same outcomes and/or kinds of motivation. For example, consider the two cases you examined from your own experience.  Which case held more intrinsic interest to you? It is a good bet it was the first one in which you felt like it was “going somewhere.” Be careful to select your goals carefully. Examine the types of motivation chart in this section for some ideas. Some goals (usually external motivators) will not last as long or maintain their effectiveness over time. While other goals have a more satisfying quality. Again consider the case that you recalled for the first case. What were your goals? You might see them illustrated as we move on in this section.

 

Variable B: The amount and schedule of reinforcement

The rate of movement will vary to the degree that there is reinforcement for the attainment of that goal. And knowing what we know about reinforcement, we know that more intermittent the schedule of that reinforcement the stronger the reinforcement.  In addition, the more closely that the reinforcement is related to the achievements necessary to attain the goal the more effective it will be.

 

Two Examples:

A case example might help clarify the theory. Imagine if you were given the task of pulling weeds. For most of us the task alone is not inherently reinforcing. So we would likely only do it for some payment. Lets say we are getting paid as our reinforcement. Lets say, we agree to be paid $50 a day. What would our motivational level be for our first day? Lets say that we were paid the same amount no matter what our rate or quality? What would happen to our motivation?  In comparison, lets say that we were paid per weed. What would that do to our motivation? What if our supervisor stopped by every once in a while and gave us a bonus for a super level of effort? As you can see all of these variables will affect our level of motivation.  They would not change the stated goal, but they would affect the our psychological sense of movement toward that goal.

 

However, consider this case from another perspective. We might ask, as a result of the motivation provided in each condition, are we more or less likely to desire to engage in weed pulling without being paid in the future? And what will the result be to our motivation to take part in work that is similar to weed pulling? This example shows that with a well-conceived plan of reinforcements we can increase motivation by manipulating the reinforcement schedule and the clarity of the goal. But we have to ask what the long-term cost of any motivational program is.

 

Now lets paint a picture that may look something like the one that you envisioned in your first situation recalled earlier.  What was the goal of the work? It was likely very meaningful, and very clear.  You knew what you were aiming for and you had a desire to attain the goal.  But why? Possibly, you were being given an external reinforcement, but it is also likely that you saw a real value to the work. It was relevant to you. The reinforcement could simply have been seeing progress toward your goal, and the feeling of getting better and/or accomplishing something. And if there were others involved, part of the reinforcement may have been the feeling of working together to achieve a common goal.

 

As we examine what could be considered the “basic needs” of each of us, consider how the satisfaction of getting needs met affects one’s level of motivation, and a decreased need to engage in what Driekers calls “mistaken goals.”  These are goals that give us a sense of satisfaction and psychological movement, but are unhealthy for all concerned. As you examine the idea of self theories (Dweck, 1999) and the development of a “mastery orientation” to work, consider how one’s orientation to the task can create more or less of a psychological sense the one is “going somewhere” in the effort. Putting it all together, consider using the lens of “success psychology” as a way to think about what makes a task satisfying, motivational, and something that you would do without a lot of external reinforcement.

 


Summary of Self-Theories (1999)

by Carol S. Dweck and others.

Carol Dweck in her research over the course of 20 years has developed a very useful paradigm with which to examine academic self-concept, achievement, and motivation.  She shows very clearly that future success is not so much the result of talent or current level of achievement, but as a result of the orientation/tools one uses to approach learning tasks.

 

Two types of Students (and views of ability/intelligence):

Fixed ability/intelligence theory: These students seek to look smart and avoid looking dumb.  Their highest desire is to accomplish tasks successfully and prove their ability to others.  So they seek tasks that will make them look good to others and maintain their conception of themselves as high ability.

 

Incremental progress theory: These students see satisfaction coming from immersion in the process of learning.  Every opportunity to learn or try is an opportunity to get better.  They do not focus on what the outcome will say about them, but what they can attain from taking part in the venture.

 

Two corresponding reactions to failure:

Helpless Pattern: When confronted by failure, students with a fixed ability orientation dealt with it by assuming there was nothing they could do further.  Their ability was not enough to overcome the difficulty of the tasks and so they felt helpless.  After failure, they quickly began to put down their ability/intelligence and perceived the whole of their effort as disproportionately unsuccessful.

 

Mastery-Oriented Pattern: Students with an incremental/process orientation, when faced with a failure condition, immediately began to consider the various ways that they could approach the task differently.  They used self-instruction to motivate and guide themselves through the challenging task.

 

How each type of pattern is conditioned

Helpless Pattern

Mastery-Oriented Pattern

Being given performance goals (i.e., goals related to measuring the ability of the participant.

Being given learning goals (i.e., goals related to how much one is going to learn)

Focus on ends/products

Focus on means/processes

Being given praise and feedback related to how good at the task or intelligent one is.

Being given operational feedback related to process aspects of the task.

Focus on ability/intelligence

Focus on effort and application

Promote stereotypical beliefs about various groups typical ability/intelligence.

Challenge stereotypical beliefs about various groups typical ability/intelligence.

Develop a failure psychology

·          External locus of control

·          Individuality and competition

·          Worth is related to ability level

Develop a success psychology

·          Internal locus of control

·          Belonging and Acceptance

·          Use personal standards to judge success

 

See appendix or course readings for more extensive readings


BASIC NEEDS

 

We all have basic human needs that must be satisfied or we experience dissonance leading to internal and/or external reactions.  Below is a list of what could be considered 5 of the most basic needs.  Each is examined in terms of what may result when it is not met followed by some teacher behaviors that might facilitate its attainment.

 

POWER:

We need to feel that we have some control over our destiny.  If we do not feel we have any power, common internal reactions include becoming withdrawn and passive aggressiveness, while common external reactions include rebellion and hostility.  Teachers can give students a sense of power by giving students choices, giving responsibility for aspects of the class, giving rights, and refraining from bossiness.

 

LOVE/BELONGING:

We need to feel like we are loved and that we are a wanted part of a group.  If we feel perpetually unloved, alienated or isolated, common internal reactions include a sense of guilt, worthlessness, loneliness, lowered self-esteem, while common external reactions include acting out, over achievement, clowning, and pleasing.  Teachers can give students a greater sense of love and belonging by recognizing unique qualities and talents, creating an emotionally safe, community environment, and showing a sense of caring to the students.

 

COMPETENCE:

We need to feel a sense of self-efficacy.  If we feel useless, incompetent or unappreciated, common internal reactions include losing motivation and/or a sense of inadequacy, while common external reactions include bragging, acting overly competent, attention getting, and excuse making.  Teachers can give students a greater sense of competence by focussing on progress and not products, recognizing incremental achievement and original ideas, expressing high expectations, and helping students achieve the goals they have set for themselves.

 

FREEDOM:

We need to feel like we are autonomous and have freedom of choice.  If we feel too restricted or imprisoned, common internal reactions are to become withdrawn or resentful, while common external reactions include fighting back, active resistance and/or seeking paths around the authority. Teachers can help students experience freedom through supporting autonomy and creativity (when students act responsibly).

 

FUN:

We need to be able to have fun and express ourselves.  If we are put in a repressive and/or tedious environment, common internal reactions include boredom, frustration and daydreaming, while common external reactions include making one’s own fun, engaging the teacher in (off-task) games, and hostility.  Teachers can promote students’ sense of fun by the use of humor, providing opportunities for creative play, making learning interesting and a thoughtful use of healthy competition.

A Three Factor Operational Definition of SUCCESS PSYCHOLOGY

 

Our self-concept (and so tangentially our psychology of achievement) is very dependent on factors within our environment.   It is formed as a result of our years of experiences (especially the early ones).  It could be said that one’s eyes and ears record the messages they receive from others, especially those most important to them.  Because one’s unconscious accepts all words and emotions as facts, no matter how legitimate or based in reality, one’s psychological orientation to trying and achieving is being continuously constructed and reconstructed by what is encountered in the mirror of others verbal and non-verbal messages

 

Research into academic achievement produces three factors that strongly correlate with achievement, a success-orientation and self-esteem.  Each of the factors/components outlined below is separate but interrelated.  In the attempt to better understand and/or promote success in oneself and others, addressing these three components can help clarify our efforts.

 

INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL: This factor is defined by one’s sense of internal causality and orientation toward personal responsibility.  The more internal LOC the more we feel like our destiny is in our own hands. It could be contrasted to seeing life as a series of accidents or “things that happen to us.”

It comes from: recognizing that our actions result in consequences, seeing cause and effect relationships related to success and failure, being given freedom, power and control with an expectation of using them responsibly.

 

SENSE OF BELONGING AND ACCEPTANCE: This factor reflects how much one feels wanted and a part of the group, and how much one likes and accepts themselves as they are.  The more one feels accepted and acceptable, the more they are able to express themselves, act authentically and be fully present to others.  Self- acceptance could be contrasted to self-aggrandizement or a compulsion to please.

It comes from: accepting messages from VIPs (including self-talk), practicing a positive approach and attitude, experiencing emotional safety, and feeling a part of a community.

 

LEARNING-GOAL (or process-mastery) ORIENTATION vs. Performance-Goal (or entity-trait) Orientation: This factor relates to one’s thinking related to the root of their competence.  Everyone needs to feel competent and confident, but if it is perceived as coming from “how good we are” at a task (related to innate ability), then we tend to give up quickly and protect our egos in the face of failure.  If our confidence is rooted in our experience in persisting to find solutions, enjoying the learning process, and approaching a task with the desire to overcome challenges, we will tend to grow and achieve more.  In this orientation intelligence is something that can be improved not innate.  This dynamic is at the root of a person being basically either success-seeking or failure-avoiding.

It comes from: having learning goals vs. performance goals, getting recognition or criticism for our efforts and not for our abilities, taking learning risks that pay off, and VIPs communicating an incremental vs. fixed view of intelligence and ability.

Exploring Student Motivation

Why do the students work in your class?

 

Form

Advantage

Disadvantage

Grades/Tokens

Tangible, familiar, motivating to students who value them.  Are similar to money.

External. Shift focus away from learning goals. Essentially work like money as “dissatisfier”

Praise

Feels good. Works to make student work harder. Works in short-term.

External. Can be addictive. Can reduce student’s internal locus of control. Can be manipulative.

Incentives

Can be useful to define valued outcomes or processes. Help clarify the focus of the effort.

Can lose their value over time if used repeatedly. Students may expect them after a while. External.

 

Competition

Can raise the level of interest in the activity. Can bring the “team” aspect into an effort. Comparison is motivational to those who aspire to the top. Brings a “game” feeling to work.

Comparison can shift focus away from the quality of the effort. Breads “fear of failure.” Promotes short cuts and cheating to get the prize. Creates winners and losers.

Self- Improvement

Promotes intrinsic motivation. Helps students clarify their own goals and desires. More long-lasting sense of satisfaction. Ultimate “satisfier.”

Takes a lot of time to promote. Students that are used to more external motivation may not trust its value.

Positive Reinforcement

Helps shape the desired behavior. Can be done quickly, efficiently and without much cost or planning. 

Can create a dependence on the teacher’s energy to motivate. Is external.

 

Assessing Behavior/Effort

Can promote high quality behavior and effort. Begins working fairly quickly. Helps promote the concept of “good behavior.” Can reward effort and process outcomes.

Can be very manipulative. Can make students dependent on an external evaluation of their behavior. Can be a tool for favoritism and bias.

Increased Responsibility

Can create the cause and effect between responsibility and freedom. Can increase responsible behavior.

Have to give away power to students. Creates more unpredictability in many outcomes.

 

Avoid Penalties

Works in the short-term. Motivates students who are used to that technique. Can help clarify the boundaries in a class.

Can promote students merely avoiding getting caught. Does not inspire high quality behavior. Can create hostility.  External.

 

Problem-solving

Can promote greater resourcefulness. Can promote an emphasis on process. Motivational to students when they solve the problem/reach the goal.

Can be messy. Less teacher control of outcome.

Teacher Relationship

Can send a message that the student is valuable and special. Can help students care about academics. May be the only thing that some students respond to.

Takes time and energy. Can produce students that become excessively “needy.”

Public Recognition

Can reward behavior and effort that may not be rewarded by peers. Feels good to recipient.

Can reinforce pre-existing “haves” and “have-nots.” External. Requires consistency and thought.

 

Social Learning Theoretical Model

 


Teacher

 
We do not need to learn

what we know exclusively

by direct experience.  We

Student

 
can learn by watching what

happens to others and infer

what would happen to us.

 

Other Students

 
 


1.         Other students observe what

happens to one student and can then

make decisions related to how to act in the future based on what they see.

·        If one student is given a consequence for a behavior, the others can assume they might get that same consequence.

·        Be aware of personal vs. educational lessons.

·        This is how students make judgements about consistency.

·        Reverse effect – Students also learn what behaviors have an effect on the teacher through indirect observation.

 

2.        For some, peers may be a greater source of recognition than the teacher.  Impressing peers may be a larger need than meeting the expectations of the teacher, especially if the student has an unmet need for love/belonging.

 

3.        Teachers can use this model to influence the behavior of the individual student as well.  If a consequence is eminent for the whole group, then the group has an incentive to peer pressure individuals into meeting the common goal.

 


 

Part II: Instructional Planning

 

Lesson Planning Worksheet

 

1. In your group, discuss the question: why do we use lesson plans, and do we really need them? Why? or Why not?

 

2. Examine some of the lesson plan examples provided.  What is the format and/or the ingredients that are the most essential to a good plan, and what would you just as soon leave out if you were to make a lesson plan yourself.  Defend your judgments to the rest of your group and then as a group to the class.

 

3. As a group, decide on the ingredients that are most essential to a “good plan” and then develop a lesson plan using those components.  Let’s say you want to teach your class (your choice of subject and/or grade level) a lesson on the difference between the editorial page of the newspaper and the other content. You can use any approach (indirect, direct or some combination) that you feel would be most effective. Assume your lesson is something you are going to do within a day (or two at most).

 

4. Use the overhead transparency film and pen to write out your plan and then share it with the rest of the class.  In the presentation of your plan explain why you chose the plan format and components that you did.

 

After seeing the plans of others, discuss in your group what changes you would make to the format you chose.

INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING FRAMEWORK

 

OUTCOMES

(Goals, Objectives, Targets, Standards)

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES

ASSESSMENT

(Formal and Informal Methods)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes:

 


 

Part III: Events of a Direct Instruction Lesson

2 Contrasting Models

 

Gagne and Briggs

Hunter (ITIP)

1. Gaining attention

2. Anticipatory set

2. Inform learner of Objective

 

3. Objectives and purposes

3. Stimulate recall

1. Review

4. Describing material

4. Input and Modeling

5. Eliciting desired behavior

5. Checking for understanding

 

 

6. Guided practice

6. Provide feedback

8. Independent practice

7. Assessing the behavior

7. Closure

p. --- in Borich text.