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Week #2: Values and Planning Basics

§         Teaching values

§         The learning cycle

§         Learning Models

§         Objective, goals and outcomes



Learning Models


Examine the Following Learning Models.

·        Which one do you think is more valid?

·        Which one is easier to write objectives to?

·        Which one is most helpful is planning instruction? In understanding how students think?


Bloom (Cognitive Domain)





















Cognitive Developmental Framework


                                    Manipulative             Representational               Abstract


Remembering                           1                                  2                                  3



Solving                         4                                  5                                  6



Investigating                              7                                  8                                  9






State your objectives in terms of observable (i.e., explicit, measurable, specific, positive) student behavioral outcomes, that represent student learning targets.


Do Not:

State in terms of teacher behavior:

I will demonstrate how to make a pizza to all students....


Do Not:

State in terms of a learning activity:

We will first read the story..... and then produce storyboards.


Do: Incorporate the following components:

·         Behavioral Outcome (usually represented by a verb)

·         Conditions or Context of the learning (if appropriate)

·         Criterion Level (if appropriate)


For example:

The learner will (TLW) state behavioral objectives in the appropriate format, given


clear learning targets (they or someone else has developed), any time they need or want to.

      CONTEXT                                                               CRITERIA


Good objectives clearly describe the behavior (usually cognitive) that demonstrates the learning you want the students to accomplish. For example, “TLW calculate the sums” is a better phrase than, “TLW will complete the worksheet correctly.”  Both of the verbs (calculate and complete) are observable and measurable, but only “calculate” is describing a desired cognitive operation.  Completing the worksheet does not really specify what is being learned. It may be helpful to think in terms of what the student will show you that provides evidence they have done the thinking you wanted them to accomplish.  What is the thinking required to complete the worksheet?


The verb that drives your objective should be consistent with the cognitive level of your target.  Most charts of Bloom’s Taxonomy provide lists of verbs for each cognitive level.


These types of specific behavioral objectives are best used at the lesson planning level.  For unit goals, a broader level of outcome is more appropriate.  The use of verbs such as understands, learns, and knows are good verbs for goals, but are NOT specific or observable enough for behavioral objectives.