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                                                Poetry: Techniques & Form
John Sweeney, EDU 548
A Unit of Study, Grade Level 9

Overview:
The following course of study is a poetry unit designed for a ninth grade heterogeneous Language Arts class. Poetry is a part of the Language arts curriculum at all levels of a student’s education. This unit is designed to assess and build on prior knowledge and to take the students further into an exploration of an important area of the study of the English Language. The unit is composed of two parts, one centering on poetic technique and figurative language with ten 50-minute lessons. The second is focusing on poetic form and is composed of seven 50-minute lessons. During the unit students will work in cooperative groups, use learning centers, and participate in whole class discussions, direct instruction and poetry workshops.
Goals:
1) The learner will respond to poetry.
2) The learner will show knowledge of poets.
3) The learner will show knowledge and understanding of poetic devices.
4) The learner will show knowledge and understanding of poetic forms and styles.
5) The learner will write poetry.
6) Students will discuss and evaluate poetry.
7) Students will present poetry to an audience.
8) Students will develop a further appreciation of poetry.

Objectives:
1. The learner will read poetry and respond to it in a written response journal (Reason, Skills.)
2. TLW the learner will identify three uses of poetry.  (Knowledge)
3. TLW name three poets and discuss in writing how the author’s personal life and the historical era in which he lived influenced his writing. (Knowledge)
4. TLW list three poets and name the forms of poetry, which they were famous for writing. (Knowledge)
5.  TLW analyze the meaning and forms of poems in-group and whole class discussions. (Reason)
6.  TLW identify the use of alliteration in a poem after reading it. (Reason)
7. TLW compare the use of metaphor in two poems after reading and discussing them in class. (Reason)
8. TLW identify the use of figurative language when encountering it poetry. (Reason)
9. TLW write two poems using at least two of the forms of figurative language or techniques discussed in class, in each poem. (Reason, Skills)
10.TLW will write two poems using two different forms studied in class.
      (Reason, skills)
11.Student’s will, orally present poetry to the class. (Skills)
Instructional Overview:
The unit will open with a class brainstorming activity around the word poetry. Groups will then be formed to categorize the terms brought up during the brainstorming .The results of these activities will be shared during a the whole class discussion and written up on large sheets of paper to form a graphic organizer which will be hung for use during the unit. The second part of this exercise will entail the students listing the words and categories from the organizer and rating their knowledge of the words or phrases with a simple scale. The teacher will collect these.
The next two weeks will center on figurative language and technique. The first 15 minutes of each class the students will work in learning centers based on exploring the figurative language and techniques used in poems. There will be several stations concentrating on topics such as authors, alliteration, irony, imagery, rhyme scheme, and others.  Each station will have individual techniques and language defined, and examples of the subject supplied in previously written poems. The groups will be asked to compose a line or two of verse, which are an example of the technique they are exploring and to pick other examples of what they are studying at the station from books of poems available at the station. These will be read to the class. Each group will then be responsible for identifying their technique as the class goes over poems together during a whole group poetry discussion.
Daily, the class will read at least one poem from handouts or the overhead, which will form the basis of class discussions. For this discussion, the teacher will have picked a poem illustrative of the main topic of the day. To begin each day’s discussion, the group at the “author station” will give a brief presentation on the results of their Internet author search. The daily poem will then be read aloud by the teacher or student volunteers and discussed. The first part of the discussion will center on reader response. Second, the groups and individuals will be asked to point out examples of their topic of the day. Thirdly, the teacher will guide the conversation toward the daily topic by pointing out use of that technique in the present example.  Poems will be passed out the night before if not sooner for students to pre-read. The students will also know what their group is responsible for the next day by consulting a prearranged schedule. The teacher will go over the schedule at the end of each period making sure the assignments are clear. Thus, each student will take a poem home every night to read and have a specific technique they are looking for during their reading. As a study aid, the graphic organizer developed in the beginning of the unit will have been augmented with examples of the techniques and terms before being handed out to the students.
 Journal entries will serve as both pre and post lesson activities. Students will be asked to write two short journal entries each night. The first will be a pre-reading activity. They will write about their personal response to that evening’s reading and predict what they will learn about in the following day’s group exploration and class discussion of the poem. The second part of the journal entry will center on their response to the previous days reading and class discussion. Did their response or feelings toward the poem read and discussed in class change during further exploration? Did their ideas about technique- imagery, metaphor, etc.-change?
 The second part of the unit will focus on forms of poetry and having the students write poetry. The initial explanation of form will rely on an inductive approach. The class will be broken into groups and each group will be assigned a packet of poems. The groups will sort and categorize the poems in a manner agreed upon by the group. Once these categories are established, groups will come together and further define the categories in a whole class discussion. Finally the teacher will suggest the accepted names for the forms and have students apply them to the categories through consensus. This exercise will assess prior knowledge of the subject as well as aid in the basic concept formation of these categories as forms of poetry. At the end of this lesson the teacher will correct and clarify the categories if need be. This exercise will then be presented as an addition to graphic organizer on poetic forms already hanging in the classroom.
 There will be learning stations accompanying each of the poetic forms discussed in the class and much like the first half of the unit, these stations will provide definitions and examples. The activities at these stations will involve the students finding further examples in books and on the Internet, as well writing or constructing poems reflective of those found in the stations. For example, the students at the “Limerick Station” will see the definition and examples of a limerick. They will then explore various sources finding exemplars of limericks and construct individual poems during several visits to that station. At the end of each rotation the group will decide upon an example of student work which will be read to the class and who will read it. A different student from each group will be chosen to read the selected poem at each station. Groups will rotate through all the various stations.
Along with the activities at the stations, Synectics and other creative writing activities will be modeled by the teacher and the daily poetry discussions will continue, until the students have rotated through the stations. At the end of the unit two or three days will be devoted to a mini writers workshop and time will be given to present author brochures.

Links Sample Lesson Plans

Lesson Plan: Brainstorming/ Pre-knowledge
Lesson Plan: Alliteration
Lesson Plan: Onomatopoeia
Lesson Plan: Metaphor
Lesson Plan: Sonnet
Lesson Plan :Haiku
Lesson Plan: Concrete Poetry
Lesson Plan: Synectics

Overview of Assessment:
The assessment process will start on the first day of the unit. The brainstorm, group list and knowledge rating of words mentioned above will serve as an assessment of prior knowledge as well as an activation of schema. This assessment of prior knowledge will serve as a guide in directing the teacher to the areas of the unit that need to be focused on and where the strengths and weaknesses of individual learners lie.
 The day-to-day work at learning centers will generally be assessed in an informal manner. The teacher will observe the groups in action noting individuals activities, interactions and contributions. A clipboard with a chart of names will serve as a daily place for anecdotal notes. At the end of the rotation at each station, groups will be asked to rate the performance of individuals in the groups by selecting a most valuable player for each station. This should help create an atmosphere conducive to group participation and help focus the student’s attention on the qualities the class decided were the attributes of good team or group members. The reporting to the class of group findings at each station and the selections of verse read or composed should indicate whether the group’s activities are on track at each station. If they are not, another day at that station may help or I can make sure the whole class discussion serves to clarify the issues that need to be taught. The rotation of the job as group reporter will also give me a chance to see how individual students react toward addressing the class, as students will be required to make a presentation to the class as part of their individual projects, I feel this is important. This activity will serve as practice for them and give me a chance to see how and where they need help. The class will have decided upon the traits, which make a good presenter and each day the group members will help the presenter assess his or her performance by rating it and giving feedback.
 Journals are another method, which will be used to see what and how the students are learning. They will be used in several ways. First they will be used as a non- threatening way for the students to respond to the poetry covered in the unit. A student may often have a response to literature and be afraid to express it in class. This journal will give them a semi- private place to respond where I can see how they are reacting to what is read. Secondly, I can use these journals to see if in fact the student is doing the assigned reading.  Thirdly, reading the journals will also give me insight into the students writing ability and serve as a place for them to practice writing. I will not be grading the journals they will be checked off individually and counted as being done or not. The second part of the journal is more of a learning log. Here the student will be required to respond to discussions and the learning, taking place in class. This activity gives me further samples of student writing and feedback on where the learner is and how my instruction is affecting them.
 Assessing the whole class discussions will also take place informally in the manner mentioned above. The student’s ability to answer questions addressed to them during group activities and whole class discussions will be noted anecdotally on the daily chart, as will personal communications regarding the students learning. Informal assessment, kid watching or just plain observing students can let a teacher know a lot about their students. Watching the students as they are choosing examples and questioning their process for choosing or accepting exemplars is a good way to check for concept attainment. Observing the way students use sources or which sources they use can be a good indicator of various skills such as reading ability, organization, and the skills necessary to do research. All of these come under the umbrella of language arts and as such should be assessed in order to aid the students learning. Watching students interact with other students can give the teacher insight into what type of learner the student is. Knowing whether a student is a sensate or intuit or an introvert or extrovert can provide a teacher insight into which strategies should be used to teach them. The modalities a student learns with are also important factors a teacher should consider watching for while observing. Observing that a certain student constantly listens to poetry at the stations as opposed to reading it should indicate to the teacher that perhaps this is the way that student learns best. In all, most of the assessing in this unit could be done informally, however, this would be inefficient and time consuming and at times lacking in validity. Therefore, a large part of the material covered will be assessed formally by a test composed of a selected response and essay questions.  Other elements to be assessed formally are the poetry writing assignment and the “author brochure” project, which involves an individual in class presentation. The project will be assessed with a trait rubric as will its presentation.  The trait rubric for the presentation will be developed in class in conjunction with the students.  Presentation exercises are often difficult for students so I feel they should have input into developing the rubric for it. The presentation will involve presenting their author brochure and reading the poem they have included in it. The poetry writing assignment will be assessed using a checklist.  I am more interested the students attempting to write poetry and trying out the techniques and forms they are studying, than assessing their ability to write poetry in the little amount of time allotted for the writing workshop. These skills will be in addressed in more detail during other units
Formal Assessment
Projects: 1) The students will be required to write and present an author brochure. The project will consist of a brief biography of an author, an example of his poetry, a picture related to the author’s poetry or of the author, which can be downloaded from the internet, copied from a primary source or drawn as student’s response to the author’s poetry. The brochure will also contain a brief discussion of the author’s work and a written student response answering the questions. “Why did you pick this author?” and “Why do you like his work?
2) The students will be required to write two poems, with each poem using at least three of the poetic devices studied in class and two of the forms studied in class.
Test: Selected Response & Essay 31questions

Table of Specifications for unit assessment:
Categories: Knowledge     Reason               Show  Total

Authors         10sr              1pr                       1pa                     10sr, 1pr, 1pa
Techniques                5sr          5sr, 1e, 2pr                2pr                      10sr, 2pr,
Forms                       6sr              1e, 2pr                   2pr                      6sr, 1e, 2pr
Presenting                                     2pr                   1pa, 2pr                  3pr, 1pa
Total                       21sr             5sr, 1e, 3pr            1pa, 3pr                26sr, 3pr, 1pa
Each match in a matching exercise is counted as a separate question. In the body of the table some products are counted, as assessing in more than one area this is not reflected the totals
                                                 Author Brochure
The student “author brochure” is composed of several parts, (see attached) all relating to the construction of a short biography of an author. As this is a language arts class I feel there is a need to focus on mechanics or grammar and writing conventions. The total points awarded for a perfect paper mechanically speaking is ten points, 1/3 of the available points. Since this unit actually focuses on content I have awarded more total points to reflect the importance of the content studied, twelve points. Since there is not a large body of factual information to be transmitted and the fact that much of this information will be available during the class time, I have attached a significant number of points to each piece of information asked for in brochure. The format of the project is stated clearly in the assignment, so there should be few errors in the actual format. There is leeway for other organizational errors in the top two levels. Part of the organization of this brochure this brochure will rely on the student’s word processing skills. There will be time to work on this aspect specifically allotted during the writing workshop phase. The organizational trait is worth eight points total
 

The attached rubric will be used to rate the student’s author brochure project. This rubric will be passed out with the assignment.

Level MECHANICS Pts CONTENT Pts ORGANIZATION Pts
   4 0 to 6 errors punctuation and spelling, a polished piece, work done in a clean, professional manner, ready for printing with minor changes. Excellent word usage and sentence structure

10 All facts correct, includes author name, birthday, death, brief synopsis of life and work, sample of poetry student response to works, picture of author, picture related to work

12 Follows given format, paragraphs contain appropriate info in the right places, written clearly concisely, Paragraphs contain topic sentence and conclusions.

8
   3   6to 14 errors punctuation and spelling, work has been proofread, good word choice and sentence structure
8 1 or 2 mistakes in the factual material, or 1 missing part
10 Follows given format, some mistakes in paragraph form, or information placement
7
   2 14 to 20 punctuation and spelling errors, proofreading needs work, misused words and problems with sentence structure apparent,
6 3to 4 mistakes in factual material or two missing parts
8 Mistakes in formatting, paragraphs missing topic sentences or conclusions, organization needs obvious work
5
   1 More than twenty punctuation and spelling errors, many misused words sentence structure grossly absent
4 More than 5 factual mistakes or 3 missing parts
5 Organization lacking, format ignored, paragraph structure may be lacking.
4
   O Non participation 0 Non participation 0 Non participation 0
 

Implementation of Assessment scale:
The project should be examined in regards to the three categories in the top column. The way the project develops these traits, should be assessed by examining the attributes of the project and matching them to the criteria level of the scale which best describes the product. The points assigned to that level, the column to the left of each criteria box, should then given to the project for that trait. The score from the three categories or traits should then be totaled to give an overall score for the product.
Sample Lesson Plans
     Lesson Plan: Brainstorming/Pre-Knowledge
Goals: The learner will show knowledge and understanding of poetic devices.
The learner will show knowledge and understanding of poetic forms and styles.
The learner will demonstrate their prior knowledge of the study of poetry.
Objectives: The student will individually list three types of figurative language used in poetry.
The student will individually list at two poetic forms during the in class discussion of poetic forms.
The learner will identify the common properties of items listed in the whole class poetry brainstorming process and will categorize them according to these properties.
The student will show knowledge of poetry by categorizing elements of poetry in super-ordinate and subordinate categories.
The learner will participate in a cooperative group activity performing, his or her assigned role.
The student will rate his or her knowledge of the individual terms and items listed on the graphic organizer generated by the class activities.

Time: 50 min.
Prerequisites: Students should be familiar with cooperative group activities from previous activities in the class and have some knowledge of poets, poetic form, and figurative language, from previous time spent in schools. Students will be familiar with journal writing activities.
 Anticipatory Set: Students will enter class where the word   POETRY is written the board. As the teacher starts a brainstorming process on poetry, he will write an acrostic poem using the word poetry as a base and student responses as the lines of the poem. For example if a student mentions the use of onomatopoeia the word will be spelled vertically off the root word using the o in poetry as the first letter in onomatopoeia.

Development:  1) The class will be directed to take part in a whole class brainstorm on the word poetry. Students will be directed to list, authors, and forms of poetry, parts of poems, types of figurative language, words, or whatever comes to mind when they think of poetry. The teacher will suggest that they list as many forms of poetry as they can and all the types of figurative language they can think of as they compose their lists. After the individual listings the class will share their findings in a whole group discussion during which they will be listed on the board.
  2) The class members will then be divided into cooperative groups where they will execute their various roles, timekeeper, scribe, etc. These groups will be assigned the task of classifying the information on the board into categories and labeling them.
   3) The class will come together and groups will share their findings. During this activity the group-derived categories will be compared, hierarchies will be discussed and established and the results will be transcribed on to large sheets of paper in graphic organizer form. The lists will then be labeled appropriately or in a conventional manner through student consensus and teacher supplied suggestions. These sheets will be hung in the room as the basis for this unit’s graphic organizer.
  4) The teacher will explain that the rating the students are about to do is to take part in is an ungraded test of their knowledge of poetry that will help the teacher ascertain their existing knowledge of poetry.  Students will be asked to copy down the lists related to authors, form and figurative language and rate their knowledge of the words on these lists, with a scale from 1to 4 and hand these into the teacher.
  5) The teacher will explain that the poetry unit, which the students have just begun, is going to cover the categories and the lists, which they have just copied.

Closure: The teacher will review the lists and the graphic organizers produced during the class and talk about the format and scheduling of the poetry unit in relationship to the organizer. The next day’s assignments will be addressed and the poetry readings for the next day’s class will be disbursed. The students will be asked to respond to the day’s activities and that night’s assigned poem in their journals.

Assessment: Prior knowledge of the subject will be assessed during the word knowledge rating mentioned in step four. The group list activity and categorization will be assessed informally through observation and personal response to teacher discussion and questioning as the teacher moves amongst the groups. The labeling of categories and the whole class discussion of the lists will be assessed informally. Formal assessments will take place in the form of projects and a test. (see attached assessment overview)
 

    Lesson Plan: Alliteration
Goals: The learner will show knowledge and understanding of poetic devices.
 The student will take part in cooperative group activities.
The learner will respond orally and in writing to poetry
Objectives: The learner will be able to define the concept of alliteration.
The learner will be able to identify the use of alliteration in a poem after reading it.
The learner will be able to construct written examples of alliteration.
The learner will fulfill their group assigned duties during the group activity portion of the class.

Time: 50 min.
Prerequisites: The students should have an understanding of the division of labor in cooperative groups discussed earlier and used throughout the semester.
 Anticipatory Set: “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers” is written on the board with a” yes” next to it and “The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain” is written below it with a “no” written next to it.

Development: 1) Students go about their previously assigned learning center activities for the first fifteen minutes of the class. The teacher asks the students to rate their group participation for that day at the end of the group activity and to include their vote for most valuable player at that station. They are also asked to include additional honorable mentions.
2) After the group learning station activities, the class gathers as a whole to discuss E. A. Poe’s Poem “ The Sleeper” and the day’s author group gives a brief presentation on Poe.
3) The teacher starts a student response discussion by asking who liked the poem and why.  The teacher asks if anyone has written anything in their journal about the poem that they would like to share with class. Students are given time to respond and the teacher prompts with questions if necessary. Questions:  Why did you like or dislike the poem? Can anyone tell me what the poem is about?   How does the poem make you feel? Do you like Poe’s writing? The poem is about a woman who died. I would expect the conversation to turn to the feelings surrounding death. Students would be asked to compare Poe’s treatment of death with other authors or even Poe’s treatment of death in other works, for example his poem “Annabelle Lee”. The discussion though teacher facilitated, should be directed toward exploring student response and interest.

4) The teacher tells the students they will be telling him what the figurative language topic of the day is and puts a copy of “The Sleeper” on the overhead. The poem is exposed one stanza at a time. The lines of the poem have yes written next to lines, which include alliteration, and no is written next to lines that do not. The students will be asked to guess the topic or concept, which the teacher is attempting to elucidate. The poem has quite a few examples of alliteration. The passages that contain the most obvious examples of alliteration will be shown last. During the exercise students will be asked to explain why they suggest the hypothesis they volunteer and the teacher will point out the whether or not they are correct if they are incorrect, the teacher will supply the name of the concept they are supplying. Once the concept of alliteration is grasped using “ The Sleeper” the teacher will give a more detailed definition of alliteration.  The exercise will be repeated a second time using Poe’s poem the “ The City in the Sea” with students supplying the decision as to whether or not the lines of the poem contain alliteration.

5) The students, who worked at the alliteration station, will then be asked to supply some examples of alliteration to the class. Other class members will be welcome to join in and the class will discuss how and why authors use alliteration in various ways.

Closure: The teacher will recap earlier discussions, review the definition of alliteration, and supply examples of the concept, for example, the anticipatory set. The schedule for the next day’s activities will be gone over, that night’s poems will be distributed to students that do not have them, and students will be asked to write some lines of poetry in their journals, which are representative of alliteration.   Honorable mentions and most valuable group players listed by the groups will be congratulated and the class will be dismissed.
Assessment: Assessment will take place informally through observation and monitoring of student response during class time. For those members of the class who have not been through the alliteration-learning center, their activities at the center will be observed to see if they have attained the concept. Journals will be read to see if the students have written exemplars of alliteration. The teacher will examine the poetry writing done at the end of the unit to see if the students use this method in there writing and there will be a formal test at the end of the unit with questions on the subject.
 

   Lesson Plan:  Onomatopoeia
Goals: The learner will show knowledge and understanding of figurative language.
The learner will take part in-group literary discussions.
    The learner will write in response to literature
Objectives:  The learner will show knowledge and understanding of the term
Onomatopoeia.
         The learner will identify onomatopoeia in examples of literature.
         The learner will write examples of onomatopoeia.
         The learner will participate in group activities.
         The learner will participate in group activity review and rating
Time: 50 min.
Materials: Learning station poems and materials, tape recorder, tape of noises, blackboard, chalk
Prerequisites: Previous group work.

Anticipatory Set: The teacher will read Mark Twain’s quote “Bring on the woman and let her scream.” The class will briefly discuss the implications of this attitude on writing.
Review: Previously agreed upon group behaviors.
Development: 1) The students will work at prescheduled work- station activities for the
first 15 minutes of the class. They will then rate their group’s overall activities for the past week using a previously developed group activity rubric these will be turned in to the teacher.
2) The onomatopoeia group will then present their findings to the class.
3) After a brief discussion the class will break into their assigned groups and listen to a tape of various noises, screams, dog howls, Harley Davidson motors, snow mobile engines, a gunshot, a dropped box of fluorescent tubes, drumming, rhythmic jazz guitar picking etc. which have been numbered. Each individual will attempt to write what he or she hears.
Students in each group will have a chance to compare notes. The tape will then be played again and each group will pick the student’s example they feels best represents the sounds they heard. Each group will then be asked to write their three favorite examples on the board and the rest of the class will be asked to identify the number of the examples listed, after listening to the tape one final time. The class will then vote on the best three examples the authors of these will be asked to take a bow.
Closure: The teacher will redefine onomatopoeia, discuss how it can be used in writing, and provide a mnemonic for spelling the word. The students will be asked to find three examples of this type of figurative language in literature and to write three descriptions of sounds using onomatopoeia. Group schedules will be posted for the next day’s class and the appropriate materials will be handed out.

Assessment: Informal classroom observations will be noted. Journals and group ratings will be read. Future writing assignments and discussions will be analyzed for concept attainment and proper usage. The students will take a formal test covering the subject matter.

       Lesson Plan: Metaphor

Goals: The learner will show knowledge and understanding of the word metaphor.
The learner will show knowledge and understanding of the use metaphor in language and literature.
The learner will discuss the use of metaphor in various literary examples.
The learner will take part in whole class and small group literary discussions linking poetry to other literature.

Objectives:
The learner will identify the use of metaphor in Thom Gunn’s poem                “From the Wave”
The learner will list the two components, which make up a metaphor.
 The learner will define the term metaphor verbally and in writing.
The learner will provide examples of metaphor in writing and during in class           discussions.

Time: 50 minutes
Prerequisites: Assigned readings: T. Gunn “From the Wave”, Willard Bascom, Waves and Beaches: The Dynamics of the Ocean Surface  pp.468-471. National Geographic     “Surfing.” (Handouts) Students should have knowledge of the concept of simile.
Anticipatory Set: A surfing video with Dick Dale music playing in the background is shown as the students are entering the classroom and preparing to work at their learning stations.
Development:
1) The first 15 minutes of the class will be devoted to the pre-scheduled learning
             center activities.
2) The students at the author center present on T. Gunn.
3) The whole class sits for a read aloud of “ From the Wave”
4) The class then discusses individual responses to the poem and group findings.
The teacher centers the conversation on the use of metaphor in the poem and
explains the components, parts and uses of metaphor.
 Questions: Why do you think he calls the wave a wall?
 Do you think saying the wave was twenty of thirty feet tall would be as effective as writing that the wave is “building tall?”
What other things come to mind when Gunn compares the wave to a building?
After reading about waves and surfing in the articles are these metaphors appropriate?
What about in line 14 where the bodies become, “half wave, half men” with “feet of foam”, what is the author trying to say?
Why do you think he uses these metaphors?
In the final lines of the poem the wave, which was once a wall is now a “shelf” let’s talk about that.
How many pages was the article on surfing? Compare it to the poem, which one tells you more about surfing or surfers? Do they tell you the same things or touch on different aspects of the same thing?
5) The teacher asks the group who took part in the metaphor station on this day   to tell the class what they think about the use of metaphor in the Gunn poem and to let the class know what they found out about metaphors and to supply some further examples.

Closure: The teacher supplies a quick summary of the day’s author and the discussion on metaphor. The groups are assigned their stations for the next day. Students are asked to respond to the next day’s poem in their journals and to write about the bus or car they came to school in, using metaphor in a short poem or paragraph and using simile in another paragraph or poem to describe the same thing. These writings should accompany their reactions to today’s lesson.

Assessment: Group activities and their presentations, will be observed by the teacher who will keep anecdotal notes. Students will rate their group participation. Journals and assigned writings will be read by the teacher to ascertain concept attainment and student reactions. The use and knowledge of metaphors will be checked for in future writing activities, classroom discussion and on a formal unit test.
 

   Lesson Plan: Shakespearian Sonnets

Goal:   The learner will show knowledge of poetic form and style.
The learner will show knowledge of poets.
  The learner will discuss and evaluate poetry.

Objectives:  The learner will recognize William Shakespeare and show
  knowledge of his work and times
         The learner will identify a Shakespearian sonnet and its parts.
                   The learner will know the definition of iambic pentameter.
                 The learner will analyze the rhyme scheme of a poem.
Time: 50 min.
Prerequisites: Prior knowledge of meter, foot and rhyme scheme and prior reading of Shakespeare’s “Sonnet XVIII.”
Anticipatory Set: The teacher will refer to the advanced organizer hung in the classroom and point out how the lesson ties together several areas of previous and future study
Review: Meter, foot and rhyme scheme if necessary. Teacher will point to a poster of Shakespeare and ask if anyone recognizes whom the picture is of.
Development: 1) The students will work at the learning centers for the first 15 minutes
     of the class.
2) The day’s author group will present on William Shakespeare.
3) The day’s sonnet group will present on the form of a sonnet
4) The day’s poem, Sonnet “XVIII” will be read out loud and presented on the overhead.
5) The class will respond to the poem in a whole class discussion.
6) The poem’s structure meter and rhyme scheme will be analyzed and diagrammed on the overhead projector, in a whole class forum.
Closure:  The teacher will summarize the lesson and assign the students a poem to analyze and diagram showing the rhyme scheme, meter and form. The students will be asked to respond to the lesson in their journals and to write four lines of rhyming iambic pentameter.
Assessment: The teacher will observe and communicate with students during the learning station activities. Group presentations will be monitored for correctness and understanding. The teacher will keep anecdotal notes. Assigned and future writing assignments and discussions will be read and checked for accuracy. The students will take a formal; test covering the subject matter.
 

    Lesson Plan: Haiku
Goals: The learner will respond to poetry.
 The learner will show knowledge of poets.
 The learner will show knowledge and understanding of poetic forms and styles.

Objectives: The learner will identify poems written the Haiku style.
         The learner will name Masaoka Shiki as an innovator of modern Haiku.
The learner will show knowledge and understanding of the themes of Haiku. The learner will write Haiku poetry.

Time: 50 min.
Prerequisites: Students should have knowledge that there are various forms of fixed poetry.

Anticipatory Set: Teacher will ask students to name types of fixed poetry
Review: Teacher will review various forms of fixed poetry.
Development: 1) The students will begin the class with 15minutes at the
             poetry, style and form, learning stations.
2) The author groups will present on the day’s author. (Student choice of presented authors)
 3) The haiku style group will present their findings.
4) The previous night’s reading assignments (several Haiku) will be read aloud to the class. The class will respond to and discuss the selections
5) The teacher will give a brief lecture on the history of Haiku, some of its practitioners and the form.
Closure: The teacher will review the main points of the lesson, assign the night’s homework, and go over the next day’s schedule. Homework: the students will write three Haiku and respond in their journals to this lesson and the poem scheduled for the next class meeting
Assessment: Group activities and presentations will be observed and anecdotal notes recorded. The journal entries will be read and checked for student understanding of the lessons and accuracy in the writing of the Haiku. The subject matter will be assessed through in class discussion and personal interactions as well as being part of a formal test later in the unit.

Lesson Plan: Concrete Poetry
Goals: The learner will respond to poetry.
 The learner will show knowledge of poets.
 The learner will show knowledge and understanding of poetic devices.
The learner will show knowledge and understanding of poetic form and style.
The learner will take part in literary discussions and cooperative group activities.

Objectives: The learner will name two poets involved in the development of
        the concrete poetry movement.
The learner will identify concrete poetry upon seeing it.
The learner will list three differences between concrete and more traditional methods of poetry.
The learners will work in cooperative groups
Time: 50 min.
Materials: Computer projector, computer, projection screen, chalkboard chalk, handouts
Prerequisites:  Students will have read assigned readings.
Anticipatory Set: The teacher will have the Chinese symbol for "listen" hung on the board and discuss how it is a combination of other graphic symbols. From here the discussion of graphics in certain forms modern poetry will be developed. Concrete poems collected from the groups already having gone through this learning center will be displayed.
Review: Earlier discussions on the purpose or definitions of poetry
Development: 1) Students will spend the first 15 minutes at the poetic form learning
centers working in groups.
2) The author group will present on one of the authors involved in the
concrete movement.
3) The concrete poetry group will present on their topic
4) The teacher will present a power point presentation chronicling the development of the concrete movement starting with Pound’s Cantos and covering the work of e.e. cummings, Gomringer, and the work of the Brazilian group Noigandres.
5) There will be a whole class discussion on the workings and meanings of concrete poems.
Closure: The teacher will review the overall lesson and assign the students to reply in their journal to the question “ What is a poem?” Groups will be assigned their learning stations for the following day and poems for the following class will be handed out, if not already done so.
Assessment: Class discussions and group activities will be observed and anecdotal notes taken. Responses to in class questions will be noted. Future class discussions along the same lines will be used to check for concept attainment and knowledge of the subject matter. Formal writing assignments and a test will also be used.
 

   Lesson Plan: Creativity/ Synectics
Goals: Students will enhance their creative writing ability.
  Students will become familiar with the process of Synectics and use it to write creatively.

Objectives: The learner will identify and use direct analogies.
The learner will know what a personal analogy is and be able to compose one when asked.
The student will be able to identify and construct compressed conflicts
The learner will use analogous comparisons, personal metaphors and compressed conflicts, to describe a chosen topic while taking part in the Synectics process.

Time: 50 minutes
Materials: Blackboard, chalk, handouts.
Prerequisites: Students will be familiar with “stretching exercises” or using metaphoric thinking from previous mini-lessons, which will have taken place over the course of the unit.
 Anticipatory Set: The teacher opens a brief discussion on writing and authorship by asking the question “Who here thinks it’s easy to write poetry?”

Development: Teacher relates the need for authors to be creative and explains that the class is going to take part in a creative thinking exercise. The teacher advises students to pay attention to the process because they will be expected to replicate the process during writing groups the next day. He reminds them periodically, especially at the various steps, to note the workings of the process.
1) The teacher asks the students to think about what it is like to be an author.
2) The teacher asks the students for direct analogies describing authors as machines and lists the responses on the board. Teacher prompts class to continue supplying analogies until subject is thoroughly explored.
3) The Teacher asks students to pick the analogy with the most energy from the list and to create personal analogies from the selection. These are then listed on the board. Questions:  How does it feel to be this machine? How does this machine perceive the world? Does the machine feel it was designed right? What does the machine see? Etc.
4) The teacher asks the students to create a compressed conflict from the lists on the board. Request: “I would like you to look at the lists and create pairs of words that are opposites or that are arguing with one another.” The teacher models, if necessary. Students are then asked to pick one of the conflicts to continue the exercise.
5) The teacher asks the students for direct analogies, which represent this conflict using a type of animal. The analogies are listed on the board. The teacher prompts the students for analogies until he feels the subject has been properly explored.
6) The students are asked to reexamine their views of authors and their view of themselves as authors as a result of the exercise. The teacher prompts a discussion on the matter.

Closure: The teacher asks the students to copy the parts of the exercise off the board into their journals, which they feel best represent the ways they would describe an author or themselves as writers and to use these as prompts for writing a poem about writing. The teacher then reviews the steps in the Synectics process, clarifying student questions and asking for examples of the various types of analogies used at each of the steps in the Synectics process.

Assessment: The knowledge of the process will be assessed the following day and in the future as the teacher observes groups using the Synectics process to complete assigned activities. The lesson response portion of the student’s journals will be read to ascertain whether or not they understand the process. The topic will be addressed in a formal test.

Product and Test Materials

Author Brochure (instructions)
 
 

Poetry Unit Selected Response and Essay Test
 

TEST QUESTIONS

True False
Directions: Circle T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.

1. T   F   The first letter of each line in a “sonnet” is meant to spell a word.
2. T   F   Jack Keroac was famous for writing “concrete” poems.
3. T   F   Shel Silverstein’s poems are known for their ominous dark “tone.”
4. T   F   “Personification” is a type of metaphor in which distinctly human attributes
                 are attributed to an animal, object or idea.
5. T   F   A metaphor is a figure of speech in which one thing is spoken or written
              about as if it were another.
Fill in the Blank
Directions: Fill in each blank with a word that accurately completes each sentence.

1. William Shakespeare wrote over 100 ____________________. They are a fixed form of poetry consisting of 14 lines.
2. ____________________ was considered the poet laureate of the Harlem Renaissance movement.
3. ____________________ lets a reader of poetry know when to stop, start, breath or keep on reading.
4. A comparison using the terms like or as is called ____________________.
5. The brainstorming technique, which uses analogy to distance an author from the subject he is writing about, is called ____________________.

Matching

Directions: Match the poets’ names on the left with the descriptions on the right by writing the correct number on the lines.

1. Edgar Allen Poe            ____Started the imagism movement
2. Langston Hues              ____Wrote patriotic works about the United States
3. Ezra Pond                     ____His writings often examined the plight of black American
4. Walt Whitman               ____One of the beat poets
5. Emily Dickinson      ____“Annabelle Lee” was about the death of his young wife
6. Jack Kerouac                ____ Re-formed the writing of Haiku in the 1890’s
7. Shel Silverstein               ____Was a reclusive yet very prolific writer in the 1850’s
8. Masoaka Shike              ____Wrote poetry for children as well as adults in the late 1900s

Directions: Match the poetic forms on the left with the descriptions on the right by writing the correct number on the lines.

1. Concrete Poem       ____The first letter of each line combine to spell a word
2. Found Poem              ____5 syllables, followed by 7 syllables, followed by 5
     syllables
3. Acrostic Poem       ____The poem creates an image without being read
4. Free Verse                   ____Created by using preprinted or prewritten words and
    phrases
5. Haiku        ____14 lines, iambic pentameter
6. Sonnet        ____A fluid form of poetry, which conforms to no set rules

Directions: Read the following poem. Refer to the poem and circle the letter of the correct answer for each question.

If You Should Go

1     Love, leave me like the light,
2     The gently passing day;
3     We would not know, but for the night,
4     When it has slipped away.

5     Go quietly; a dream,
6     When done; should have no trace
7 That it has lived, except a gleam
8 Across the dreamer’s face.

1.What is line 1 an example of?
A.   Onomatopoeia
 B.   Alliteration
C.  Rhyme
D. Cacophony
2. What is the rhyme scheme of the above poem?
A. AABB
B. ABCD
C. ABBA
D. ABAB
3.What is the conversation in this poem an example of?
A. Ode
B. Apostrophe
C. Elegy
D. Eulogy
4.What is the figurative language in lines 2, 3 and 4 an example of?
A. Imagery
B. Personification
C. Onomatopoeia
D. Simile
5.What is the point of view this poem is told from?
A. Omniscient
B. Third person
C. 1st person
D. Plural
 

Turn in this part of test before continuing

Part II Essays

 Any regularly used resources in the classroom may be used to help you answer these questions. (Notes, books, poems, etc.)

Directions:  Write two essays in response to the following guidelines #1 AND #2. Use the lined paper supplied with your test.
 

#1.) List the two parts, which make up a metaphor. Take a position on the following statement: A metaphor is generally a more emphatic or forceful comparison than a simile. Use two examples each, of simile and metaphor to prove your point.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

#2.) Look at the examples on the following pages. Make a statement about whether you think each example is a poem. Back the statement up with a definition of poetry, which supports your statement. When possible use specific quotes and terms.
 

Example: #1
 

Example: #2

End of test
 
 
 

Materials

        “To Listen”
Bibliography:

http://campus.fortunecity.com/newton/40/home.html  *****Lit. & Tech./Links

http://www.geocities.com/~spanoudi/poems  ***** Poets Corner/page/Poems/author

http://www.georgetown.edu/crossroads/asw/lit.html      ***** x-road lit. project

http://www.indiana.edu/~eric_rec/bks/lhome.html           *** Eric

http://jefferson.vilhttp://www.sccu.edu/faculty/R_Harris/LITTERMS.HTMlage.virginia.edu/whitman/works/leaves/1860   *** All about Whitman

http://www.library.yale.edu/beinecke/orient/intro.htm   *** Modernists in the orient

http://www.learner.org/collections/multimedia/literature/vvseries/vvspot/Pound.htm
**** Stuff on pOund
http://oswego.org/ocsd-web/teaching/k-12.htm      ***** Great tech. Tips/links

http://www.pioneeris.net/poetry/famous_poets.htm   ***  Famous Poets

http://www.honors.unr.edu/~fenimore/en297/bohannon/links.html   *** Shel Siverstein

http://www.sccu.edu/faculty/R_Harris/LITTERMS.HTM   ***  Glossary Terms

http://schmidel.com/hub/english.htm           ****High School Hub All subjects /

http://shoga.wwa.com/~rgs/glossary.html  ****** Bob’s Poetic terms great glossary

http://www.toyomasu.com/haiku/#whatishaiku               **** Haiku

http://www.ubuweb.com/     ****** Concrete found and Crazy w/ papers on poetry

http://www.uky.edu/ArtsSciences/Classics/rhetoric.html ***Clas. Terms Glossary
 


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