A Window into Learning Style and Cognitive Preference

Paragon Learning Style Inventory

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Four Dimensions
The Study
Effective Teaching
"At Risk"
Writing Styles

Learning Style and Type Dimension Research into Student Characteristics Related to Counseling Situations:

Four Jungian Dimension Comparisons
Combinations of Note

Instinct for privacy

Intra-personal sensitivity


Instinct for expression

Interpersonal sensitivity

IT-most self-contained, least expressive

ES- most expressive.

EF- most vivid memory of experience. 

IN- most reflective


Present focus

Speak in real/practical terms

Often distrustful of therapy

Less likely to see value of psychology

Lower representation in mental health system


Future focus

Often speak in impressions

Often uncomfortably complex

More likely to see value of psychology

High representation in all areas of mental health sys.

SJ- high group affiliation 

ESTJ- high achievement w/in system.

NP-high creativity

SJ-most teachers,. 

NP-least conventional

Telling about an event:

SF-what the people did

ST-accurate order of events

NF-how it felt in general

NT-patterns and nutshells


Cool affect

Comfortable w/analytical realm

Appear self-contained 

Use thoughts to meet needs


Need to promote harmony

Comfortable in affective realm

Appear approachable & accepting

Use feelings to meet needs

NF-most counselors

TJ-rigid thinking

NT-most research scientists

INT-most analytical

ET-most assertive

IF-least assertive

INT-most academic success

IT-dates the least

EF-dates the most

IT- Least group affiliated.


Awareness of convention

Higher grades

May trust easy or quick "fix"


Adventure/pleasure seeking

Higher test scores

May mistrust "easy" solution


ESP-most drop-outs –academics

ESP least analytical

IJ-most self-directed

EP-most attuned to environment

SJ-least likely to seek counseling

NP-most prone to fantasy

By John Shindler, March, 1999 (adapted in part from research in, Manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. 1992)


::Dr. John Shindler's Web::Dr. Harrison Yang's Web:: Western Alliance for the Study of School Climate::

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Last Update: October 25, 2004