A Window into Learning Style and Cognitive Preference

Paragon Learning Style Inventory

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Teaching Across Type
Learning Style dimension combinations that most affect teaching and learning

When the dimensions of (E/I)extroversion/introvert and (S/N)sensate/intuitive are combined more of the student's learning needs and preferences are understood. The E/I attitude toward interaction with the world exaggerates the S/N orientation toward ideas. The four combinations play out in the following manner:

 ES's Action oriented realists (@40%)

This type loves action and things happening. They like to get practical results from their work, and like to work in groups. For them too much watching is a waste of time, they want to do. They like to share what they are doing and thinking. They get impatient when things are too slow, complicated, or abstract.

IS's Thoughtful realists (@25%)

This type is the most careful and steady. They don't mind working alone or with one other. They like practical results and are good with details, and technical things. They are often the least expressive; they see much but usually share little. They don't like careless ideas, plans, or too many new things at once.

EN's Action oriented innovators (@25%)

This type is really motivated and likes to make things happen. They like to work in groups on new and interesting things. They like to take their theories and apply them with others. They share easily, especially what's inside. They don't like details, routines, or the same old thing for too long.

IN's Thoughtful innovators (@10%)

This type is the best at solving problems. They like to work at their own pace on their own ideas. They like to make creative, and scientific things. They would rather express themselves through their thoughts, instead of socializing with lots of others. They don't like doing busy work or things that don't make sense.


When the dimension of intuition/sensation is combined with other dimensions the result is what Keirsey (1984) calls the four temperament types. These types are very determinant in how we deal with others. Each of the 4 types could be characterized by the following brief descriptions:

 SP's Sensible, Adaptable, Active types (@33%)

When sensate qualities are combined with perceiver qualities the result is usually someone very tuned in to the here and now. They like doing and playing today, and not being too worried about tomorrow. They are the most spontaneous and easygoing. They like to get involved in new and interesting activities. School can be boring for the SP, if it is means sitting still and doing all written work, but it can be fun too, because that's often where the action is.

SJ's Sensible, Decision-making types (@30%)

When sensate qualities are combined with judging qualities the result is usually someone who is very dependable and responsible. The SJ is very service-oriented and are good "team players". They most like situations that are spelled-out and well organized. SJ's like institutions like school, teams, church and family. They usually don't mind step-by-step work, and they like and do well in school (partly because most teachers are SJ's themselves).

NF's Enthusiastic, Insightful types (@22%)

When intuition is combined with feeling qualities the result is someone who is very good with people and language. The NF is usually very enthusiastic and warm. They are very oriented toward cooperative things, and away from competitive things. They usually have very strong feelings about things and people, they really like them or really don't. NF's are very personal types, and thrive in supportive, creative, and harmonious situations.

NT's Logical, Ingenious types (@15%)

When intuition is combined with a thinking style the result is someone who always needs to know "why?". NT's are less interested in how things have been done, and more interested in how they can improve and change them. They are very imaginative, and are very comfortable in the "world of ideas". They like to be good at things, and always want to be learning. They can appear unemotional, and can be accused of having an "attitude", which is usually not the case.

::Dr. John Shindler's Web::Dr. Harrison Yang's Web:: Western Alliance for the Study of School Climate::

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Last Update: October 25, 2004