A Window into Learning Style and Cognitive Preference

Paragon Learning Style Inventory

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"At Risk" and Problem Behavior in Schools Related to Type/Learning Style


bulletSome types (i.e. SPs, especially ESF, and ESPs) traditionally show patterns of low achievement in school (see figure 8.2). ESFPs typically have GPAs one standard deviation below the INTJs.
bulletStudents with substantially differing "types" than their teacher receive relatively lower grades, report more academic trouble, and enjoy school less.
bulletExtreme Ns (especially extreme NP combination) are by nature rebellious, and unconventional. If they are in a class with a structured SJ teacher than interprets their resistance to "coloring between the lines" as disobedience, both teacher and student are in for a long year.

Cultural Context:

bulletResults from a survey of urban, minority, "last chance" high school students (N=65), found the following:
bullet60% Introverts
bullet50% Judgers
bullet31% (IN) Introverted/Intuitives
bulletThese findings are consistent with other "alternative" school populations.
bulletOne possible conclusion is those traits that are not embraced by the culture (e.g., normative) at discouraged and create stress and cognitive dissonance for those who have them. Those with deviant traits are forced to either conform (against their nature), or accept isolation and/or "oddness".

Social Context:

bullet(IT) Introverted/Thinkers (especially females) struggle socially. They are more self-contained, join less, show less affect, appear cool and less approachable, date less, desire less affiliation, and do not mind isolation as much as other types. The "oddness", apparent disinterest, and ultimate marginalization of these types.
bulletEFPs can be characterized as placing too much value on the social.
bulletIn early years opposites attract

::Dr. John Shindler's Web::Dr. Harrison Yang's Web:: Western Alliance for the Study of School Climate::

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Last Update: October 25, 2004