Paragon Learning Style Inventory

A Window into Learning Style and Cognitive Preference

www.calstatela.edu/plsi

www.learningstylessite.com

© Paragon Educational Consulting 2009

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Home/Index

 

Interpretive Materials

 

Pair-wise Analysis of each of the Four Cognitive Style Dimensions

Type Dimension Comparison

Effects of Each Preference in Work Situations

The Factor Combinations that Most Affect School Life (EN, ES, IN, IS)

The Combinations that Most Affect How We See Things

Learning Profiles of each of the Four Academic Types – IS, IN, ES, EN

Effective Teaching across Type Dimensions

Leadership and Cognitive Style

Type and Careers: Occupational Trends of the 16 Types

Learning Style and Type Dimension Research

Related to Student Characteristics in Counseling Situations

Four Types and Writing Style

Classroom Management Tendencies of each Teaching Style

 


The Four Learning Style Factors - PDF

 

Interpreting your score: When you totaled your choices on the score sheet, the total of a’s and b’s in each column should have indicated a preference on each of these four factors of your learning style. For example, if in the first column you selected more a’s than b’s, that would have indicated that you would more likely show an E or Extrovert preference rather than an I or Introverted preference. However, if you had a tie, 6 a’s and 6 b’s, or a 7-6 score, it is helpful to examine each list of characteristics for the columns below to determine whether one of the factors is more “like you” than the other. Most people’s ”true” preference falls more into one column than the other, but being in the center is possible.

 

EXTROVERT  ( ≈ 46% of males, 52% of females)

§  learns best from doing

§  is more at ease and confident socially

§  likes to know how others are doing it

§  gets energized from socializing

§  readily volunteers and offers opinions

§  ideas start from the outside in

 

INTROVERT  ( ≈ 54% of males, 48% females)

§  likes to watch before doing

§  prefers working alone or with one other

§  sets own standards when possible

§  likes quiet space to work

§  seems "deep" and hard to understand

§  ideas start from inside out

SENSATE  ( ≈ 75% of females, 70% of males)

§  is more realistic and practical

§  is more patient and steady

§  uses his/her experience and common sense

§  likes routines and order

§  looks more for what is actual and sensible

§  lives in the here and now

 

INTUITIVE  ( ≈ 25% of females, 30% of males)

§  is more imaginative and abstract

§  likes new challenge, works in spurts

§  trusts what makes sense to her/him

§  dislikes routine and detail work

§  looks more for what is possible

§  lives toward her/his vision of the future

FEELER  ( ≈ 70% of females: 45% of males)

§  is more interested in people than ideas

§  focuses more on personal relationships

§  likes harmony dislikes conflict

§  is tuned in to others' feelings

§  is warm and arouses enthusiasm

§  makes decisions based on his/her heart

THINKER ( ≈ 55% of males: 30% of females)

§  is more interested in fascinating ideas

§  wants things to be fair and reasonable

§  stands-up for what he/she thinks

§  is tuned in to logical consistency

§  is cool-headed and impartial in conflict

§  makes decisions based on rational thought

 

JUDGER  ( ≈ 55% of population)

§  is more decisive than curious

§  likes planned and scheduled activities

§  has very set opinions

§  feels good when things are completed

§  likes order and organization

§  may make decisions too quickly

PERCEIVER  ( ≈ 45% of population)

§  is more curious than decisive

§  likes the spontaneous and unplanned

§  is flexible, adaptable, and tolerant

§  like to keep options open

§  seeks more to understand than manage things

§  may have trouble making up her/his mind

 

 

               

The combination of your four preferences makes up your four factor “learning style.” Taking the underlined letters from the factor titles above, you will obtain one of the 16 possible learning style combinations (i.e., ENTJ, ISFP, ESTP, or INFJ). Remember there are no better or more important styles. Those who prefer to work out of each side of the four factors are needed to make things work.

The more your score fell on one side of the column than the other, the more you will likely show a greater comfort working in that mode. While we all have the ability to work in either mode, understanding the modes that are the most comfortable for you will help you learn to be more successful and appreciate your unique gifts. You can learn more about how your preferences affect your style of learning, living and acting in the following pages.

 

 

 

Style Dimension Comparison - PDF

 

 

Introversion

 

Extroversion

Withdrawing to peace

   Energy from . . .

Immersion into action

Watching first

   Learn from . . .

Doing first

Wait to be approached

Interaction

Initiate the interaction

Series of  one-on-ones

Socializing

In groups

Externally reserved

Expression

Shows what’s going on

Inside/Autonomous

Thinking

Outside/Accommodating

 

 

 

Sensate

 

Intuitive

Practical reality

World

Socially constructed

Respect for what is

Reality

Imagine what could be

Present

Time orientation

Future

Experience

Effectiveness
       comes from . . .

Ingenuity

What works

Data for tasks

What makes sense

 

 

 

Feeling

 

Thinking

People

Basic Value

Rational

Wholes/Similarities

Looking at things

Patterns/Differences

Mostly resist it

Approach to Conflict

Can do it casually

Warm and readable

Affect

Cool and reserved

Praise and encouragement

Motivation

Achievement/Goal attainment

 

 

 

Judging

 

Perceiving

Decisive

Decision Style

Open-minded

Convergent

Approach to information

Divergent

Linear/Sequential

Cognitive Pattern

Random/Circular

Clock time is valid

Time

General/Flexible

Completion

Comfort in tasks

Getting Started

 


 

 

Effects of Each Preference In Work Situations – PDF

 

Extraverts

Like variety and action

Are often good at greeting people

Are sometimes impatient with long slow jobs

Are interested in how others do their jobs

Often enjoy talking on the phone

Like to have people around in the working environment

May prefer to communicate by talking rather than writing

Like to learn a new task by talking it through with someone

 

Introverts

Like quiet for concentration

Have trouble remembering names and faces

Can work on one project for a long time

Are interested in the idea behind the jobs.

Dislike telephone interruptions
Often act quickly, sometimes without thinking

Work alone contentedly

Think before they act, sometimes without acting

May prefer communications to be in writing

 

Sensing types

Are aware of the uniqueness of each event

Focus on what works now

Like an established way of doing things

Enjoy applying what they have already learned

Work steadily, with a realistic idea of how long it will take

Usually reach a conclusion step by step

Are not often inspired, and may not trust the inspiration
    when they are

Are careful about the facts

May be good at precise work

Can oversimplify a task

Accept current reality as a given to work with

 

Intuitive types

Are aware of new challenges and possibilities

Focus on how things could be improved

Dislike doing the same thing repeatedly

Enjoy learning new skills

Work in bursts of energy powered by enthusiasm, with slack
    periods in between

May leap to a conclusion quickly

Follow their inspirations and hunches

May get their facts a bit wrong

Dislike taking time for precision

Can “overcomplexify” a task

Ask why things are as they are

 

Thinking types

Are good at putting things in logical order

Respond more to people’s ideas than their feelings

Anticipate or predict logical outcomes of choices

Need to be treated fairly

Tend to be firm and tough-minded

Are able to reprimand or fire people when necessary

May hurt people’s feelings without knowing it

Have a talent for analyzing a problem or situation

 

Feeling types

Like harmony and will work to make it happen

Respond to people’s values as much as to their thoughts

Are good at seeing the effects of choices on people

Need occasional praise Tend to be sympathetic

Dislike telling people unpleasant things

Enjoy pleasing people

Take an interest in the person behind the job or idea

 

Judging types

Work best when they can plan their work and follow the plan

Like to get things settled and finished

May decide things too quickly

May dislike interrupting one project for a more urgent one    

May start too many projects, having difficulty in finishing them

Tend to be satisfied once they reach a judgment on a thing,
     situation, or person

Want only the essentials needed to begin their work

Schedule projects so that each step gets done on time

Use lists as agendas for action

 

 

Perceptive types

Do not mind leaving things open for last-minute changes

Adapt well to changing situations

May have trouble making decisions

May postpone unpleasant jobs

Want to know all about a new job

Get a lot accomplished at the last minute under deadline
    pressure

Use lists as reminders of all the things they have to do

 

From: A Guide To the Development and Use of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (1998).

 

 

 


The Factor Combinations that Most Affect School Life – PDF

The two factors that most affect how one acts and learns in school are those of introversion/extroversion and sensation/intuition. Introverts may be more reflective while extroverts may be more outgoing. Practical skills may come more easily to sensates, while intuitives may be more comfortable with imagination. The key to academic and social success is to get to know your learning style and your comfort areas and then use those strengths to work on your less developed areas. The chart below shows the four possible combinations.

 

 

 

Extroverts (E)

Introverts (I)

Sensates (S)

ESs  Action oriented realists  ( ≈ 36%)

 

This type loves action and things happening.  They like to get practical results from their work, and like to work in groups. For them too much watching is a waste of time, they want to do. They like to share what they are doing and thinking. They get impatient when things are too slow, complicated, or abstract.

 

ISs  Thoughtful realists  ( ≈ 36%)

 

This type is the most careful and steady. They don't mind working alone or with one other. They like practical results and are good with details, and technical things. They are often the least expressive; they see much but usually share little. They don't like careless ideas, plans, or too many new things at once.

 

Intuitives (N)

ENs  Action oriented innovators  ( ≈ 16%)

 

This type is really motivated and likes to make things happen. They like to work in groups on new and interesting things. They like to take their theories and apply them with others. They share easily, especially what's inside. They don't like details, routines, or the same old thing for too long.

 

INs  Thoughtful innovators  ( ≈ 12%)

 

This type is the best at solving problems. They like to work at their own pace on their own ideas. They like to make creative and scientific things. They would rather express themselves through their thoughts, instead of socializing with lots of others. They don't like doing busy work or things that don't make sense.

 

 

The Combinations that Most Affect How We See Things

When sensation is combined with the last (J/P) category, and intuition is combined with the third (T/F) category, four combinations are created that are often called the four temperaments types. When looking at a problem each of the four types may see it, and approach solving it, very differently. But for a team to be most successful it needs to incorporate the ideas and perspectives of each of these four learning styles.

 

 

Sensates

SPs  Sensible, Adaptable, Active types  ( ≈ 30%)

 

When sensate qualities are combined with perceiver qualities the result is usually someone very tuned in to the here and now. They like doing and playing today, and not being too worried about tomorrow. They are the most spontaneous and easy-going. They like to get involved in new and interesting activities. School can be boring for the SP, if it is means sitting still and doing all written work, but it can be fun too, because that's often where the action is.

 

SJs  Sensible, Decision-making types  ( ≈ 40%)

 

When sensate qualities are combined with judging qualities the result is usually someone who is very dependable and responsible. The SJ is very service-oriented and are good "team players.” They most like situations that are spelled-out and well organized. SJs like institutions like school, teams, church and family. They usually don't mind step-by-step work, and they like and do well in school (partly because most teachers are SJs themselves).

 

Intuitives

NFs  Enthusiastic, Insightful types  ( ≈ 20%)

 

When intuition is combined with feeling qualities the result is someone who is very good with people and language. The NF is usually very enthusiastic and warm. They are very oriented toward cooperative things, and away from competitive things. They usually have very strong feelings about things and people, they really like them or really don't. NFs are very personal types, and thrive in supportive, creative, and harmonious situations.

 

NTs  Logical, Ingenious types  ( ≈ 10%)

 

When intuition is combined with a thinking style the result is someone who always needs to know "why?” NTs are less interested in how things have been done, and more interested in how they can improve and change them. They are very imaginative, and are very comfortable in the "world of ideas.” They like to be good at things, and always want to be learning. They can appear unemotional, and can be accused of having an "attitude," which is usually not the case.

 

 

 

 

Learning Profiles of each of the Four Academic Types – IS, IN, ES, EN

 

 

Extroverts (E)

Introverts (I)

Sensates (S)

ESs  Action-Oriented Realists  ( ≈ 36%)

 

Let me work with my hands and create something practical. Some people may call me a “kinesthetic” learner, but I would rather call myself a “doer.” I like to be part of a team and see practical results from my/our work. I have a strong need to contribute and be recognized. Don’t just explain how to do something to me, at least show me, and better yet, let me try it out. I learn from doing and then reflecting on what I have done. If you want me to understand an abstraction let me discover it inductively, or I can have a difficult time integrating it into a big picture understanding. Written directions can be really helpful to me. If you expect me to continually sit and listen to a lecture and then do well on a test later, I will likely disappoint you much of the time.

 

ISs  Thoughtful Realists  ( ≈ 36%)

 

Let me work independently on tasks that are clearly spelled out. Let me work with facts and information and I will be able to use my power of insightful realism to come to sound well thought-out conclusions. Give me a chance to be careful and thoughtful. I will be your most dependable and steady student if you give me work where the directions are clear and the desired outcome is understood beforehand. Give me recognition for my care and persistence since those are my strengths and I may not draw as much attention to myself as some of the other students. When you give vague careless directions or just expect me to “be creative” with no guidelines, I will likely feel some uneasiness and maybe even some resentment.

 

Intuitives (N)

ENs  Action-Oriented Innovators  ( ≈ 16%)

 

Let me work in situations where I can use my communications skills in my learning. If I am working in a group where there are chances to be creative, I can get really motivated. I am a much better student when I am “into the task” as opposed to when I am “not into the task.” I like to be inspired and see the purpose behind the work. I have an expressive energy that comes out when I am comfortable, and it helps me draw out my creativity and make connections across content. Talking, discussing, role-playing, debating are natural ways for me to tap that energy source. Peer tutoring a subject that I am good at is one of my favorite things to do. Projects where I can solve problems and draw energy from working with others and overcoming challenges are also areas where I feel very confident. When there are too many details, routines, lectures or the same old thing all the time, I may turn my creative energies into behavior that you may not like.

 

INs  Thoughtful Innovators  ( ≈ 12%)

 

Let me work in situations where I can come up with my own ideas whenever possible. I don’t have as much trouble as some of the other students in being creative. I am often surprised when I see that I sometimes see deeper realities that other students miss. I like to come up with stories, draw pictures, or think of new ways of doing something. Some people call me a “visual learner” but I just feel more comfortable studying something for a while and understanding how it works before I try to do it or talk about it. I will be the last to volunteer usually, but I will work to master it long after the other students have moved on to something else. I need to be able make connections with the current subject and the previous subjects, so let me know the purpose behind what we are doing before you tell me what to do. If you ask me to do work that is pointless, inconsistent, or irrelevant then you will probably see me become at least a bit cynical and/or irreverent.

 

 

 

 

 

Effective Teaching across Type Dimensions

 

Introverts teaching Extroverts

Extroverts teaching Introverts

·         Use group work and cooperative learning

·         Use wait time with questioning

·         Provide time for movement

·         Value expression

 

·         Provide individual tasks

·         Call on all students regularly

·         Provide written venues for thinking

·         Value reflection

Sensates teaching Intuitives

Intuitives teaching Sensates

·         Provide opportunities for creativity

·         Give students the “big picture” of their work

·         Use concept attainment and problem-based strategies on occasion

·         Teach inductively on occasion

·         Don’t overemphasize the details

 

·         Provide hands on activities

·         Give clear step-by-step directions

·         Explain the practical application to work

·         Avoid long abstract or theoretical lectures

·         Value the quality of students work

Thinkers teaching Feelers

Feelers teaching Thinkers

·         Remember to show your warm feelings

·         Avoid excessive conflict in your teaching style

·         Include praise in your feedback

·         Avoid being too critical

·         Express your joy or pleasure whenever possible

·         Value feeling in written work

 

·         Do not rely too heavily on praise

·         Give concrete feedback

·         Try to accept some degree of healthy conflict

·         Be consistent in your application of principles

·         Don’t be afraid to give honest feedback/critique

·         Value logic in written work

 

Judgers teaching Perceivers

Perceivers teaching Judgers

·         Allow for some flexibility in assignment format

·         Use variety

·         Provide clear written assignment guidelines

·         Allow for flexible time frames for completion

·         Value novelty and open-mindedness

 

·         Provide clear written assignment guidelines

·         Prepare students for changes in plans

·         Try to keep to the agreed upon schedule

·         Provide some routine in the day

·         Value accuracy and punctuality

 

 

In general:  Teachers who are aware of their own style and those of their students will be more successful with more types of students. Teachers who provide a challenging meaningful curriculum, a safe and communal classroom climate, and clear assessments, using well-designed rubrics, will be more successful with all students. Teaching to a variety of modalities or styles may be the better approach than trying to individualize instruction, especially at the secondary level.



 

Leadership and Cognitive Style (expanded exercises) (exercises PDF)

 

Understanding your cognitive style can be very useful in developing your leadership style. It may be helpful to use the conceptual framework illustrated in the diagram below to assist you in exploring effective leadership behavior within the dimensions of cognitive preference.

Leadership
Vision,My Style
Decisions
Shared Values
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


This diagram depicts the 3 critical and interrelated dimensions of effective leadership. First, a good leader needs to be able to develop and communicate a collective vision for the group as it moves toward its goals. Next, a leader needs to be able to make decisions based on good information and the will of the group. Finally, an effective leader is one who understands that no outcome will last unless it is grounded in shared values and has high levels of group ownership. It may be helpful to breakdown each of these areas of leadership within the cognitive dimensions that most define them. For example, the way one conceives a vision seems to be most dependent on a combination of the first two dimensions (E/I and S/N), shared values would be the middle two (S/N and T/F), and decisions would be the last two (T/F and J/P).

 

The following exercise may helpful in the development of your leadership abilities. First, consider how the other type combinations are most comfortable operating in each of the three areas, and then use the set of guiding questions to help you develop a more well-rounded approach to leading.

 

For each of the 4 type combinations, VISION is typically based in:

ES – shared action and experience

IS – tasks and accomplishments

EN – shared principles and action

IN – an internal interpretation of the big picture

If I were to have any of the other styles, what would be my approach to developing and communicating a vision for the group? What can I learn from the other approaches? What would be the various needs of the other members of my group when it came to feeling as though group action was a reflection of a collective emergent vision?

 

For each of the 4 type combinations, the priority VALUES are typically:

SF – people’s feelings and getting practical needs met

ST – consistency and practical realities

NF – meaningful outcomes and emotional harmony

NT – logical consistency and relevancy

If I were to have any of the other styles, what would be the values I would use to assess if the group was functioning well? If I ignored these other ways of thinking, what important values might I be neglecting? Given the other types, what needs must I address to make the group members comfortable in the process?

 

For each of the 4 type combinations, the typical DECISION-Making style will look like this:

FP - flexible given the needs of people

FJ – principle-driven based on how things affect people

TP – logical but open to change

TJ – decisive and objective

If I were to have any of the other styles, what would I need to feel comfortable with any decision? If I am a very decisive “judger,” what can I learn from the more measured and/or open-minded group members? If I have a strong “perceiving” preference, what could be accomplished by occasionally making decisions without complete assurance? As a feeler, am I willing to accept the need for logical outcomes? As a “thinker,” am I willing consider the human needs even if they feel less objective?

 


Learning Style and Careers: Occupational Trends of the 16 Types – PDF

 

ISTJ

Management

Administration

Law Enforcement

Accounting

 

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their experience, attention to detail and dedication to organizational goals to accomplish practical tasks.

ISFJ

Education

Health Care

Religious Settings

 

 

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their experience and/or their understanding of organizational standards to help others and support the “team.”

INFJ

Religion

Counseling

Teaching

Arts

Writing

 

Or any other occupations where they can facilitate the emotional, intellectual and spiritual development of others and/or express their ideas in writing and plans.

INTJ

Science

Computers

Law

Academics

 

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their intellectual creativity to create plans and schemes and/or their ease with technology to solve problems.

ISTP

Skilled Trades

Technical Fields

Computers

Agriculture

Military

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their practical expertise to solve technical problems and/or process information effectively.

ISFP

Health Care

Business

Law Enforcement

 

 

 

Or any other occupations where use their attention to detail in a service-oriented field.

INFP

Counseling

Writing

Arts

 

 

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their creativity in independent ways and/or where they feel the freedom to grow.

INTP

Sciences

Technical Fields

Computers

Design

 

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their analytical ability in independent ways to solve problems, invent and discover.

ESTP

Marketing

Skilled Trades

Business

Law Enforcement

Applied Technology

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their “doer” nature to find technical solutions and make sure practical work is carried out successfully.

ESFP

Health Care

Coaching

Skilled Trades

Childcare

Public Relations

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their outgoing nature and people skills to help people with their practical needs.

ENFP

Counseling

Teaching

Religion

Arts

Public Relations

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their energy and people skills to motivate and help groups and individuals grow and/or work together better.

ENTP

Science

Management

Technology

Arts

Design

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their analytical skills and multiple talents to help groups function more effectively and solve new challenges.

ESTJ

Management

Administration

Law Enforcement

 

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their organizational and leadership skills to help others execute the task in the most efficient manner.

ESFJ

Education

Health Care

Religion

 

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their instinct for teaching and care for others with a primary focus on practical needs and creating harmonious organizations.

ENFJ

Education

Religion

Social Work

Arts

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their people skills and enthusiasm to help others grow, make meaning and understand the big picture.

ENTJ

Management

Law

Leadership

Technology

 

Or any other occupations where they can use their natural leadership skills and analytical ability to help organize and marshal the energy needed to get collective tasks done.

 

 


Learning Style and Type Dimension Research Related to Student Characteristics in Counseling Situations – PDF

 

Four Jungian Dimension Comparisons

Combinations of Note

Introvert/Reflectives

 

Instinct for privacy

Intra-personal sensitivity

Extroverts/Experientials

 

Instinct for expression

Interpersonal sensitivity

 

  IT- most self-contained, least expressive

  ES- most expressive.

  EF- most vivid memory of experience.

  IN- most reflective

 

Sensates/Concretes

 

Present focus

Speak in real/practical terms

Often distrustful of therapy

Less likely to see value of psychology

Lower representation in mental health system

 

Intuitives/Abstracts

 

Future focus

Often speak in impressions

Often uncomfortably complex

More likely to see value of psychology

High representation in all areas of mental health sys.

 

  SJ- high group affiliation

  ESTJ- high achievement w/in system.

  NP- high creativity

  SJ- most teachers,

  NP- least conventional

     Telling about an event:

  SF- what the people did

  ST- accurate order of events

  NF- how it felt in general

  NT- patterns and nutshells

 

Thinkers

 

Cool affect

Comfortable w/analytical realm

Appear self-contained

Use thoughts to meet needs

 

Feelers

 

Need to promote harmony

Comfortable in affective realm

Appear approachable & accepting

Use feelings to meet needs

 

  NF- most counselors

  TJ- rigid thinking

  NT- most research scientists

  INT- most analytical

  ET- most assertive

  IF- least assertive

  INT-most academic success

  IT- dates the least

  EF- dates the most

  IT- least group affiliated.

 

 

 

Judgers/Sequentials

 

Awareness of convention

Higher grades

May trust easy or quick “fix”

Perceivers/Randoms

 

Adventure/pleasure seeking

Higher test scores

May mistrust “easy” solution

 

  EFJ- harmonizers

  ESP- most drop-outs –academics

  ESP- least analytical

  IJ- most self-directed

  EP- most attuned to environment

  SJ- least likely to seek counseling

  NP- most prone to fantasy

 

 

 

By John Shindler, February 2007 (adapted in part from research in Manual: A guide to the development and use of the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. 1992)

 


    

 

Four Types and Writing Style – PDF

 

The four writing styles presented here are typical of four basic approaches to narrative: the Scientific, the Theoretical, the Mythic, and the Phenomenological. Most of the students’ writing, to some degree or another, fall into these four basic categories.

 

 


THE MYTHIC (SF)

 

Although myths may carry many symbolic meanings and may serve a number of cultural functions, they are, at their very core, stories about people. It is that sense of a myth that is the focus of this approach to writing history. As you read the SF’s writing pay attention to how they emphasize the people, and the random events into a story with a beginning, middle and end.

 

 

 

THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL (NF)

 

Phenomenology is a school of philosophy that holds, in brief, that we cannot know concrete reality with any certainty; what we can know, however, and what philosophers should investigate, is our reactions to concrete reality. As you read the NF’s writing, pay attention to how they emphasize their reactions to what happened without describing, at least in detail, what actually happened.

THE THEORETICAL (NT)

 

Some writers, like many SFs are more concerned about accurately describing concrete reality; others, like NTs are more interested in developing ideas or theories that will explain what reality is and what it means. As you read NT writing, pay attention to their efforts to understand and describe “history.”

 

 

THE SCIENTIFIC (ST)

 

Although the term “science” covers a wide range of meanings, it is used here in its most common and restricted sense: science is the accurate observation of a concrete reality. As you read the ST’s writing, pay attention to how they try to accurately describe the “things,” and how what materially happened and the practical/scientific explanation for why they did.


Classroom Management Tendencies of Each Teaching Style – PDF

 

 

Intuitives (N)

Sensates (S)

Perceivers (P)

NPs - Creative - Spontaneous

The Intuitive (N)/Perceiver (P) combination tends to be the most creative and free-thinking type. A good term for their classroom management style mentality is “global.” They tend to incorporate a broad set of principles and are very comfortable making adjustments on the fly.

Things to learn from the NP:

·         A dynamic approach to teaching

·         How to use data/events to learn to evolve and change

·         How expectations can be implicit but well-understood

·         The benefits of reading the students and the situation and not being a slave to the plan

Things the NP might need to work on:

·         Making the structure more explicit (especially for the SJ students)

·         Keeping in mind that changing plans can be really uncomfortable if it happens frequently

·         Being sensitive that setting and keeping to time frames is helpful for many students

·         Being very clear and concrete when giving directions

SPs - Realistic and Spontaneous

The sensate (S)/Perceiver (P) combination tends to be the most tuned-in to the present moment reality. Their classroom management can be the most subjective, in the sense that they interpret events on a student-by-student basis. They are the most likely to trust a strategy that has worked in the past, and they rely less on theory than experience.

Things to learn from the SP:

·         How to appreciate the subjective nature of teaching and students

·         How to adjust to the situation

·         How to project an authentic and “here and now” affect

·         Practical innovations to the job

Things the SP might need to work on:

·         How to be more consistent and principle-driven

·         How to be less personal and reactive with student misbehavior

·         Thinking more in terms of long-term outcomes as opposed to what seems to work in the short-term

·         Communicating a sense of vision and purpose to students

Judgers (J)

NJs - Systematic - Rational

The intuitive (N)/Judger (J) combination tends to be the most principle-driven of all the types. Their classroom management style mentality begins with a set of theoretical assumptions as the primary reality, which are then applied to practical situations as needed. They tend to have very strong ideas about what they want and desire all the aspects of their class to fit into an integrated whole.

Things to learn from the NJ:

·         How to think more systemically

·         How to attend to patterns below the surface rather than just what is apparent

·         Innovative ideas they develop

Things the NJ might need to work on:

·         Changing strategies when something is not working

·         Allowing more flexibility in the day for some students

·         Being tolerant of the diverse needs and approaches of students

·         Being concrete when giving directions

·         Not assuming that a good theoretical explanation will translate into “what to do” for most students.

 

SJs - Realistic and Organized

The sensate (S)/Judger (J) combination is the most common among teachers possibly for their natural affinity for order and structure, and their comfort with institutional settings. Practical system-thinking comes easily to them, so their classrooms usually reflect a high degree of efficiency. They typically find a set of effective routines and procedures and refine them over time.

Things to learn from the SJ:

·         How to create efficient procedures

·         Practical ideas that save time and energy

·         Ways to visually display and manage ideas and materials to good advantage

·         Consistency and Fairness

Things the SJ might need to work on:

·         Changing patterns when there is evidence that a need is present

·         Mistakenly interpreting an efficient practice as one that is inherently effective/healthy for students

·         Putting more emphasis on promoting intrinsic types of motivation rather than relying on too many extrinsic forms

·         Being more flexible and spontaneous when it would benefit the situation

 


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