Paragon Learning Style Inventory

A Window into Learning Style and Cognitive Preference

www.calstatela.edu/plsi

www.learningstylessite.com

© Paragon Educational Consulting 2009

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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LEARNING STYLES MATERIALS for FACILITATORS

 

This packet includes the Paragon Learning Style Indicator and interpretive materials. More information can be found at  http://www.calstatela.edu/plsi. The format used in the Paragon Learning Styles Indicator is derived from the four Jungian dimensions and is the same as that used in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Keirsey Bates Temperament Sorter (KBTS). The dimensions integrate well with other notable learning style formats. This integration is diagrammed in the following tables:

 

 

 

Directions for Facilitators

 

1.    Be sure to become familiar with the PLSI materials and cognitive type theory before facilitating its use with learners.

 

2.    Provide each student with a materials packet and score sheet. Make sure that each learner has a writing instrument.

 

3.    Provide a test taking environment that is free of distractions, expectations from any professional or personal context, and the influences of others.

 

4.    Provide test takers the following directions at the start:

·         Free your mind of all external influences.

·         It is important to answer the way you feel, not the way that you think others (bosses, spouses, parents, teachers) would like you to answer.

·         There are no correct answers; the best answer is the one that is most honest for you.

·         Answer quickly, and when in doubt go with your first impulse.

·         To place your responses in the correct location, notice that you must answer across the page (horizontally) and not down (vertically).

 

5.    Provide the following instructions as test takers begin to complete their inventories:

·         Notice the spaces at the bottom of each column. Count the number of a’s and the number of b’s and place those totals in the correct place below. The totals will look something like this:

44. b

48. b

-------------------------

a/J- 4

 

b/P- 9

 

·         Students who have clear preferences (8 or more choices in one category) should be instructed to place the letters of those preferences in the spaces at the bottom of the page as shown here:

Put your results in the blanks below as shown in this example.
(Place the corresponding capital letter with the higher total in the space.)

___E___  INTROVERT/EXTROVERT (first column)

___S___  SENSATE/INTUITIVE (second column)

___F___  THINKER/FEELER (third column)

___P___  JUDGER/PERCEIVER (fourth column)

 

·         Students who have near-ties (i.e., 7 in one space and 6 in another) should be instructed to use the dimension pair lists on the next page of their packets to attempt to break the tie or clarify a preference. Usually if test takers examine each list, they will likely see one or the other that is “more them.”  Remember this is only an inventory, not an absolute measure.

·         One person in 20 will have a legitimate tie in one area (i.e., they are unresolved between two dimension preferences). In that case, they can refer to themselves as an X (e.g., EXTP). Therefore, they may want to educate themselves in either of the applicable type combinations (e.g., ESTP and ENTP). As they become more familiar with the dimension combinations, they may be able to reasonably break their tie.

 

6.    Test takers should be given the opportunity to process the results of their inventory and its implications. It is CRITICAL that all test takers understand that there are NO better types, and that all types are equally valuable.

 

7.    Facilitators have several options after inventories have been completed. The degree to which any individual wishes to help test takers make sense of cognitive type and its implications would depend on their comfort with the material and the theory. Here are some ideas for facilitating a deeper understanding in learners:

 

·         Ask questions that provoke inductive processing of the topic. For example, one could ask,

·         “How is this information liberating to you?”

·         “How could it be used in a limiting way?”

·         “What are some benefits to having people of all different types?”

 

·         Compare cognitive type to left- or right-handedness. Just as we were more inclined to use one hand or the other, we are more comfortable using one preference or another.

 

·         A PowerPoint Presentation that includes exercises and explanations for use with students are provided in the licensed materials. See Index.

 

·         Take each dimension one at a time, and explain the two sides. Begin with Introversion and Extroversion. Compare how each preference plays out in behavior. Again, this can be achieved inductively to some degree. Asking questions may be a good way to help the learners stay engaged and to make sense of the dimensions. For example, you may ask, “which type tends to raise their hand more?”  or “which type tends to be more reflective?”  But we can not overemphasize – both sides of each dimension are equally important. If learners are made to feel that one type or those with certain preferences are better, many will likely become hostile to the entire theory.

 

·         It is useful to give learners scenarios to help them process the applications of cognitive type. For example you may ask them about the difficulties (and ultimately the solutions) for a teacher with type X and a student with type Y, or two friends, or two members of a committee. Have small groups brainstorm problems and solutions and then share them with the whole group.

 

·         Tailor any presentation to the needs of the group. There are limited materials that are provided with the PLSI. These materials are mainly intended for younger learners and teachers. There are other excellent materials available. Consulting Psychologists Press (800-624-1765) has excellent materials available for purchase.

 

8.    All purposes and applications of type information by facilitators should be explained to test takers.

 

9.    Refer to suggestions for teaching and type for ideas related to how to teach incorporating the needs of each type.


 

     Recommendations for Users

 

  1. The enclosed (PLSI) Paragon Learning Style Inventory material should only be used by professionals who have a thorough understanding of Jungian/Myers-Briggs Theory. All facilitators should read the directions for use provided in this packet.

 

  1. The PLSI and enclosed materials will be useful for assisting learners in obtaining their 4-dimension learning style. Teachers/Facilitators will likely want to obtain more information about learning type theory and each of the 16 types. A sample of useful educational literature is enclosed, but a great deal of quality research has been done in the area of the MBTI and learning style that would be useful in your facilitation.

 

  1. Scores obtained by the PLSI, or any other cognitive typing inventory such as the MBTI, are somewhat reliable indicators of “true type.”  Type should be stable over a lifetime. However, because these tests rely on human self-reporting, there will be some inaccuracy in the ability to achieve the goal. Scores are more reliable in the following cases:

 

 

  1. The directions in this packet provide instructions to deal with tie scores and unclear preferences. Reliability should improve as learners have more exposure to the materials and gain more internalization of the Jungian dimensions.

 

  1. Over-emphasis of this theory and/or individual type discoveries by teaching professionals can be counter-productive. The theory is simply another tool to aid in understanding. Be sure not to label or reduce learners to types. Most all ventures into learning style and cognitive preference are useful and can provide insight and empowerment of both teachers and learners, but there are potentially harmful consequences of using inventories such as the PLSI.

 

The “three major sins” for facilitators of typing theory:

·         Looking at people as types rather than human beings with boundless potential.

·         Using type to reinforce value judgments related to type-related behavior.

·         Using type to endorse the abdication of personal responsibility for one’s actions.

 

 

 

Integrating Learning Style Formats

 

Concrete/S

Abstract/N

Reflective

ISTJ

 

ISFJ

 

INFJ

 

INTJ

 

ISTP

ISFP

INFP

INTP

 

Experiential

ESTP

 

ESFP

 

ENFP

 

ENTP

 

ESTJ

 

ESFJ

 

ENFJ

 

ENTJ

 

In the above framework used in the 4mat or Kolb Learning Style Test the following equivalents can be used:

Introvert = Reflective,   Extrovert = Experiential      Concrete = Sensate,   Abstract = Intuitives

 

 

 

Concrete/S

Abstract/N

 

Sequential/J

ISTJ

 

ISFJ

 

INFJ

 

INTJ

 

 

 

 

Random/P

ISTP

 

ISFP

 

INFP

 

INTP

 

ESTP

 

ESFP

 

ENFP

 

ENTP

 

 

Sequential/J

 

ESTJ

 

ESFJ

 

ENFJ

 

ENTJ

 

In the above framework used in the Gregorc system the following equivalents can be used:

Sequential = Judger,    Random = Perceiver         Concrete = Sensate,  Abstract = Intuitives