Classroom Climate Plan
EDCI 590, Dr. Shindler
Summer 2008, Tuesdays and Thursdays 4:20-7:55
A. Action Research and Diagnosis
Phase 1: The Problem
Literacy in education is discussed and refined on a daily basis to provide students with quality education. Among educators, literacy is the foundation for students to be able to read, write, and comprehend the content being presented at their current developmental level of cognitive understanding. Currently, students are at a disadvantage to grasp new concepts since they struggle with past information already given to them at a level beyond their understanding. As a result of reading and comprehension skills students need to acquire, my question is how the strategy of reading aloud to students affects their use of comprehension skills when they read on their own and its possible improvement on their reading scores. In short, what would happen if I implemented read alouds with whole group instruction with my students?
Questions aligning with research:
- What are the benefits of using the read-aloud strategy in terms of social and academic rates of success? (Guiding Question)
- What does current research say about the effective of read-alouds used in the classroom? (Secondary Question)
- Do students participate and communicate with their peers during the activity? (Secondary Question)
- Will students use the strategies presented during read-alouds within their own individual reading? (Guiding Question)
Phase 2: Plan of Action with Timeline
This study will be conducted within two units of our language arts curriculum that takes approximately 3 months towards the beginning of the school year. The units that will be covered are Animals and Things That Go in the Open Court Reading Program, 2002. It will be conducted with twenty first graders in my classroom at Fenton Avenue Charter School. The population consists of mostly Latino students in a low socio-economic area, and with students receiving free and reduced lunch meals, in the city of Lake View Terrace.
I would begin my study with a pre-survey of questions in the beginning of the year within the first reading unit of Let’s Read. Since they are young, I would have four faces ranging in attitudes toward their feelings of reading on a sheet of construction paper. The first would be a happy smiley face; second a straight face; third a sad face; and the fourth a confused face with a question mark for the mouth. The students would be asked to point to the face after the questions are orally asked. Their responses will be recorded on a pre-test survey sheet. The following would be the questions: How do you feel about reading; How do you feel when you are reading by yourself; How do you feel when you are reading with a friend; How do you feel when you are reading with your parents/siblings; and How do you feel when someone reads to you as you watch and listen to them read. I will be looking for trends and patterns to see how the students perceive reading alone, with a friend, with parents/siblings, and when they are read to. I will take their pre-test scores and compare them to the post-test scores after the implementation of the read alouds later on in our study.
After the pre-test survey, the students will be given a reading fluency, reading passage, and several comprehension questions to assess their current level of reading and comprehension skills. After the reading assessments, beginning in Unit 2, the students will be read-aloud to on a daily basis for 20 minutes after lunch. The literature selection will be aligned to our unit themes on different fictional and non-fictional books with animals and types of things that go ranging from mechanical machinery to animals being used for transportation. I will also choose books appropriate to student’s interests and matched to their developmental, emotional, and social levels.
The read-aloud strategies I will implement are based on research and instructional practices I have seen used in classrooms. In a article in the Reading Teacher Journal called, “Interactive read alouds: Is there a common set of implementation practices?” Fisher et al. (2004) a common set of read aloud practices that focused on the following elements; (1) Books are appropriate to students' interests and matched to their developmental, emotional, and social levels, (2) Selections are previewed and practiced by the teacher, (3) A clear purpose for the read-aloud is established, (4) Teachers model fluent oral reading when they read the text, (5) Teachers are animated and used expression, (6) Teachers stop periodically and thoughtfully question students to focus them on specifics of the text, (7) Connections are made to independent reading and writing (Fisher et al., 2004). The article is a great resource to model the steps to take when you are selecting a book to read, the strategies you choose to implement, and the discussion occurring throughout the time period.
Furthermore, more research states the importance of reading aloud to student’s to enhance cognitive level of thinking skills. Also, as they grow older, in order for students to be able to become independent readers and monitor comprehension skills in their own reading, they need constant models and directives to remind what to do as they read. According to Mcgee and Schickedanz (2007), all primary children need to hear teachers reading complete texts aloud to them on a regular basis. The enjoyment and significance of these readings cannot be overestimated, as they will have an effect on the children’s own personal spoken language, reading and writing. Teachers need to model the thinking process and ask questions throughout the story for clarification and in turn students will grasp techniques and create their own culture of reading.
Given the research in the importance of reading aloud and how its implemented, I will also use some strategies that I believe are effective. Depending on the genre of literature and the focus of comprehension, the read alouds will emphasize different key points. The reading tools and comprehension skills I will teach in the beginning are: how to open a book, importance of title and author, reading from left to right, stopping at periods, pausing at commas, pronunciation of end marks, and more of the foundational skills. As the read-alouds progress I will introduce and model the following comprehension skills throughout my reading: predicting, summarizing, visualizing, monitoring and adjusting speed, monitor and clarifying ideas, cause and effect, main idea, drawing conclusions, etc. The key purpose of these read-alouds is to model all of the skills trained readers do when reading. Many professional readers that read fluently unconsciously use these comprehension skills without knowing. It is these skills I will use to think-aloud during the process that are vital to the reading strategy. Along with my modeling skills, the students will have many moments of think-pair-share, group questions to answer on chart paper, and discussions on the key elements of the stories. They will actively be involved in the process as they learn how to model great thinking skills as they read
On a given day of a read-aloud I would have my students join me on the rug as we begin our story of the day. I will read the title, author, and illustrator of the book, and explain their importance. I will attach some background knowledge to our unit on animals and why it is so important for all animals to remain in their habitat in order for them to survive. I will have the student share their ideas about different animals they see on a daily basis and their environments and compare them to the animals they do not see and the environments they live in. The student will think, find a partner, and share their ideas. I will read the book by stopping for clarification of vocabulary words in context, for predictions, connections, and summarizations. At the end of the story the students will discuss their favorite parts and why, possibly change or add things into the story, visualize how they would feel if they lived in another habitat, etc. I will reinforce how they are to participate, interact with one another, and share their ideas without negative criticism. Since they will share their ideas, the story then takes on meaning and relevance as children talk through the process of reading. Also I will ask factual, interpretative, inferential, suggestive questions, etc. to see where their level of understanding is.
After our daily read-alouds I will choose on three volunteers to model for everyone how to read a couple of pages using the read-aloud skills they have learned in that lesson along with previous lessons. This will help them remember when they are reading independently.
After the 3 months of being read-aloud to, the students will be given the same pre-test as a post-test for me to see any changes in their reading attitude surveys. Furthermore, I will continue the read-alouds, except now I will have the students go back to their seats and choose a book to read individually. They will go to the classroom library and use their bookmark labeled “just-right” where it will follow the rules of: looking at the cover, read the title and author, read the blurb on the back if there is one, flip through the book, read the first page and use the five finger rule, 0-1-too easy, 2-3-just right, 4-5-too hard. They will choose a book from the library and read using their telephones. Their telephones are made from pipe attached together from the hardware store. I will walk around and monitor to see if they are thinking aloud and using the strategies used during our class read alouds.
As I walk around, I will have a checklist of items the students need to accomplish while reading aloud. In the following section, I have described in detail the items I would be looking for. In addition to the checklist, I will also assess their reading at the end of every month, with a total of three assessments, with students reading aloud and answering comprehension questions based on a book read during read alouds.
Phase 3: Data Collection
As I mentioned in the previous section, I will give my students a pre-test on their attitude towards reading to see their thoughts and feelings prior to beginning the read alouds. After the pre-test, they will be given the Open Court fluency measurement and reading comprehension prompt with factual, inferential, interpretive, and cause effect questions. The students will first read a passage for one minute for fluency, then read a story with a beginning, middle, and end, followed by a series of questions in order for me to see their level of reading and comprehension level of skills.
After the survey and reading assessment, I will observe their interactions amongst one another throughout the read alouds. I will observe the students responses to group discussions according to their involvement in group participation, peer-interaction, level of understanding, and intrinsic motivation they have towards reading. Furthermore, I will have a checklist of items that I want the students to accomplish during read-alouds on a scale of one through five which are: attentive listening, actively engaged, peer-talk with partners, social interaction, level of comprehension, and side notes for areas of strength and weaknesses.
After the first month of read alouds, I will give them one of the stories read during the read aloud for them to read aloud to me individually as I record their miscues and I will ask questions after. I will do the same after the second month and third month of the read-alouds with familiar stories read aloud. Furthermore, I will use the same pre-test-survey as the post-test and graph the differences, if any, from the initial survey.
After the read alouds are conducted, I will then see if the students will use the strategies presented and used during whole group within the individual setting at their seats. I will have a checklist of things to look for as they read independently as I walk around which would say: Is correct intonation being used with end marks?, Are students thinking aloud the reading comprehension tools such as, I predict that …, This happened because …, I wonder what will happen next…, The characters are being … I remember when this happened to me…, etc., Are they going back and re-reading things they misunderstood?, Are they raising their hand when they come to a word they do not understand?, Are they able to answer the questions I ask of them? All of these questions are imperative to see if the strategy is effective.
I will also continue to research existing journals for articles pertaining to teaching read alouds and how effective they are on student self-esteem individually as they read independently and collectively as they are working together with other members of their group. Strategies will be taken and used from the research to develop some interventions or modifications.
Phase 4: Analysis of Data
The initial analysis of data being the pre-test will show me that the students enjoy reading or being read to in different social aspects or that they do not. Since they are still young and have not been exposed to a great deal of reading or possibly even being read to, I hope that their answers will be inclined to the positive aspect of reading.
From the initial fluency, reading, and comprehension test, I believe the students will be average and be able to read the words but might have difficulty in explaining what is occurring in the story with the terminology I would use such as: characters, setting, summarizing, what cause this to happen, etc. I believe that the students will progress at the end of the second and third month of reading passages and questions answered.
In addition to the reading passages and data of questions answered, I will analyze their behavior in the beginning, middle, and end of the three-month period to see how they have progressed. I will use the checklist and graph out the three phases to see trends and patterns. While I analyze the checklist, I hope to find a progression in consistent classroom participation, a sense of belonging, student’s using essential vocabulary phrases from comprehension, for example: I predict that…, There is a cause and effect because…, the main idea is …, the main characters were …, etc., positive feedback to peers, and overall inclination towards reading.
After the pre-test, post-test, three reading assessments, and on-going informal observation, I will analyze the data I collected from the student’s reading independently. I will use my data from the checklist and my informal observations and I believe that my students will be using the think-aloud strategies to stop, re-read, clarify, ask questions, predict, summarize, etc. on their own without someone always telling them to do so. They will also accomplish this goal because they will be using books that are just right for their level of reading.
Phase 5: Plan for Future Action
As a result of this study I will share my read aloud ideas and strategies with other teachers in my grade level and make a bag with the books, comprehension skills taught within the lesson, and activities to do after. Since the purpose is to get the kids involved, I would want to make sure that throughout the story they get up to write something on the chart paper, write on their whiteboards, think-pair-share, apply to their own life, etc. I would recommend to others that reading aloud send such a great message as you read with enthusiasm and you get involved in the reading process as an individual expressing words into meaning with various levels of comprehension. I do not believe that teachers know how much power relies into taking their sentences and making them come alive to young children who are fascinated with books full of wonder, adventure, facts, and silly stories. I would share my experiences with my peers and have them be creative with their own teaching styles.
I would make sure that I commit to the task everyday after lunch for 20 minutes to keep up with the consistency and tell others to do the same. I will write what I have learned into lessons based on themes, keep my literature bags full of ideas, and share them during our reading curriculum meetings as a grade level.
B. Goals and Vision Setting
In my classroom, every student is accounted for, valued, and appreciated for whom they are. Every morning I implement a plan to meet with every student to greet them, talk to them about how they are, and ask them about their plans for the day. They are entitled to a safe and healthy environment free of negative comments or influences to place them in harm or danger. My classroom meets the high expectations for student interaction, a sense of belonging, being an individual, having the opportunity to grow and learn, and to praise our peers for their accomplishments.
I accomplish these goals by implementing mutual respect between my students and I. I also use positive reinforcements to promote self-esteem and positive classroom behavior through praises, classroom cheers, and extrinsic motivation with chance cards. The chance cards are used for prizes at the end of the week for being a en exemplary student, following rules, and going above and beyond. The students and I created our classroom rules together and they understand the consequences for good and bad behavior. I emphasize student accountability during a situation and remind students about the rules they created. I promote collaboration with think-pair-share, small groups, and whole group for students to be held accountable for their learning as they think-aloud and hear responses from their peers.
All of these goals were made and implemented in hopes to make my classroom a place where children want to be and learn not only the curriculum from me but from their peers hat have a world of information and experiences that they have experienced themselves. I know my classroom is a place where we are all growing as individuals and collectively as a group to make the learning process the adventure that it should be.
I have created an environment for my students to be open-minded, active learners, and critical thinkers of the task ahead of them. My students are responsible, self-expressive, self-motivated, appreciative, and collaborative workers all there for various goals but accomplish the same goal. The goal I care about is for them to define success and contentment with their actions. I care that my students are respectful, honest, and understand their worth and reason in my classroom.
Section C: Technical Management
For my technical management there are a few but crucial cues given when I would like their attention. I use a had clapping cue when I do a pattern of clapping and the students follow and turn their bodies toward me when we are doing a group assignment, time to switch centers, or when I need the classroom to quiet the noise level. The hand clapping technique works every time because I practiced it with them during different educational settings. We practiced on the rug when I’m teaching and need there undivided attention, when I’m standing and directly teaching a concept, when I need immediate silence and all eyes on me, etc. The students are trained to drop everything and turn their bodies to find me during the signal.
Besides the hand clapping, I also use the cue, I, 2, 3, eyes on me and the students follow with 1, 2, eyes on you. I also alter it by saying, 1, 2, 3 eyes on the board and the students follow the same pattern. I use the cues when needed and have noticed that its effect is higher when it is not overused. Furthermore, since there is a lot of movement from the rug to their desks, from their desks to get in line, and so forth, the students have learned that when I ask for a quiet transition that they are to go to their next area quietly and follow through with the directions. We practiced this several times in the beginning of the year for the students to compare what a quiet and noisy transition were. I find this a useful and practical system to engage through because it gives students some idea of what good transitions look like and how the rules of the class take effect.
For homework, every morning the students come inside, take out their binders and wait for me to walk around and check their homework. As I walk by I ask them what book they read for twenty minutes, if they liked it, how they would change the end of the story, etc., very simple questions. As I walk by and talk to the groups at their tables, they get the feeling that I really value the work they did and the stories they read. After I check each table, they place their reading log, behavior chart, and homework into the homework basket.
Finally, the rules and consequences of our classrooms are clear and all students are held accountable. In the beginning of the year as a class we create the social contract of rules that they must follow because they create them. We currently have six rules in our class and they are all stated in a positive manner. According to Transformative Classroom Management:
Promoting a Climate of Community and Responsibility, Dr. John Schindler explains that, “rules can exist as words on paper or a whiteboard and stay “just words,” never becoming meaningful. Until they become a concrete and material part of the students lived experience, they will have little influence on behavior” (Schindler, website resource). It is true that when something is said in words and is not written down, those students will not take it seriously. In my class students signed their name on the bottom and it is strategically placed next to their behavior chart. The behavior chart has four colors with a behavior labeled to them. The color green means their doing a good job, yellow is a warning, blue means their benched at recess, and red is when they go to the opportunity room and get a phone call home. The students know what is expected and they know that when they break a rule, they need to pull their card. I also have an incentive program with clothespin clips on the side of the chart for the students who are showing exemplary behavior, they put a clip on their green card. At the end of the day they receive 1 chance card for being on green and extra chance cards for every clip they have on their card. The students keep their chance cards for prizes at the end of the week. The students have seen what prizes they can earn with the chance cards and even though it is a form of extrinsic motivation, I believe that there needs to be some implementation for positive behavior in class. The students are aware that is they pull their card to yellow that they will not earn a chance card. They understand that their behavior has a consequence in that they will not receive the perks of our classroom system.
Another implementation strategy I use for behavior is the second step program where the students are exposed to different daily problems or occurrences inside and outside of the classroom that they face. There is a problem stated and the students need to figure out some ways to solving it. They get into groups and discuss what they would do. They reenact the situation and how they would solve it by role-playing. The students learn how to react if that situation ever pertained to them.
Overall the students realize that there are classroom rules in place and that they represent the guidelines and procedures they need to follow. Through lessons they also understand that they are valuable and that the rules are there for their safety and to create an environment where students feel comfortable to learn the content and from one another.
D. Motivation, Expectations, and Emotional Climate
Motivational goals, Strategies for Motivation, and Teaching Philosophy-
My goals for motivational factors is for students to understand why they are attending my class everyday and their importance to our classroom as a whole and individually. I want my students to have a mark in my class by having everyone know their name, their contributions, and what they do to make us a community of learners.
Even though I have external motivation concepts in my class in the way I have implemented the chance card system for prizes at the end of the week, I also hold intrinsic motivating factors to the same, if not higher level, of implementation. My motivational goal for my students is for them to arrive to school every morning with the expectation and internal drive to learn new things from their friends and myself within a social and safe environment. I do not enforce or represent myself as the conductor of the class that holds ultimate power in what occurs day in and day out. When students walk into my classroom they feel like an individual with opinions and thoughts that may or may not differ from others. Furthermore, they feel like a team when things are said and done within group work or outside on the playground. Since I have already spoken about my extrinsic motivating factors in class, in the next paragraph I will outline my procedures in bringing out the intrinsic factors in my students.
A strategy I implement for intrinsic motivation is to provide a safe and comfortable environment where the students feel safe, accepted, wanted, and treated with respect. Since the environment is safe for mistakes as we all grow in the learning process, they do not fear in sharing their opinion by participating in small or large groups with their peers. Furthermore, the students feel a sense of belonging in the group when their peers are always sharing and communicating with one another during partner talk or small group projects where they need to share ideas and work together. Once the students feel comfortable to express themselves, the instructional aspect from myself becomes a lot easier and manageable.
Another strategy I implement after the student is valued as an individual is for students to come together as a group to form an identity different from their individual identity. When students work together, their purpose in displaying a finished project is lost within the language of communicating with one another to figure out what jobs they have, what tasks need to be completed, how long things will take, etc.
My implementation practices to foster group work is to have a “get to know each other” activity in where the students wear their nametags and they go around learning how to spell each other’s name within a word puzzle activity. At the end of the activity the students become familiar with one another. Furthermore, there is a song that we sing that goes to the saying: Daniel Murphy, How are you? Who’s that sitting next to you? The student responds by saying the student’s name and last name. The game continues and is used for us to get to know each other collectively as a group.
My teaching philosophy with my students is that they are entitled to a safe and accepting environment where they will learn and grow as a student and an individual in a larger society. As I try to move away from the conductor style of teaching to the facilitator, I notice that the students, depending on the composition of the kids, can take control of their learning to the point where you feel like the teacher but the method of instruction becomes different. My students are presented with each lesson with a cognitive demanding structure where they need to use their critical thinking skills with a variety of subject matters. Also I believe that students learn from everything within their environment and try to provide them with rich experiences that tap into their background knowledge and take them even further.
Satisfying Basic Needs and Emotional Climate Expectations:
The emotional climate needs to be positive even though you are having a rough or bad day. Since we all know that student’s sense when we are sick, upset, or have a lot on our mind, we have to be conscious of our reactions and the way we represent ourselves. Furthermore, students need to be provided with basic needs in the class throughout the day. One of the basic needs is to provide attention to them when they ask questions, need clarification, or would like to share ideas. Even though we do not have enough time, it is very imperative to show them that we truly do care. Another need is to comfort them when they need emotional support. Some student’s come from homes where they are one of many children, parents may divorced, had an argument with a sibling, etc, and they look to us for that advice or support system. A third need they have is for you to fulfill that role of a teacher in providing valuable and carefully planned lesson to accommodate all of them. On a daily basis I begin with the attitude that they will be able to try their best in everything given to them. I trust that if I model to them my belief in their actions that they will eventually learn to believe in themselves. We start with the lesson with a lot of guided practice. I provide enough scaffolds to the point where I believe they can do the work individually or with some assistance. As the work becomes more difficult and independent, I monitor to see which students may need that additional help. I hold true that there are sequential steps to follow as they begin to practice as a collective group then work up to the individual area of learning.
Success occurs for me after a lesson when I know the students retained enough information that if they were exposed to it in a different manner or at a different time that they would be able to not only understand it but to be able to explain and apply it. When a student learns a concept, I have them explain to me how they got there and how to apply it to other areas. It is true that success is defined in different terms for everyone but I hope that my students feel successful within themselves and each other when a lesson or project is accomplished in a days worth of learning.
The last basic need they need fulfilled is for me to be the role model in caring, being aware, and active in whom they are and what they represent. As a teacher I know that I would place value in the opinions of people towards me. In the same manner, the students need to know that you care for tem individually and not to place favorites on any one student.
E. Whole Class level of Goals and Strategies
Social Bonds and Class Coherence:
The way social bonds are created in the classroom begins with the set of rules that they created together as a whole class. They chose the rules and believed that if any one of those were broken, then a consequence of pulling your card would be a fair consequence. I already explained my behavior chart process in the earlier section of technical management but I do want to emphasize that I as the facilitator still have a vital role in leading their discussion. The students are also aware that in building these rules together, they are all held to it together as a team. They begin to build this small community where they need to look out for one another and to be accountable for each other in their actions in the classroom.
Throughout our daily interactions, especially the beginning of the year, I am the conductor in a sense where I give them the ideas in what to do. If I were to let them facilitate themselves in the beginning of the year, there would be chaos. As the year progresses, I would slowly let go of my control and let them plan on what to do and how to execute the lesson to reach the end product of our objective. Since they are placed in a situation to learn together, I enjoy students collaborating and discussing their steps in the lesson. I would implement lesson-planned structures where they are productively working towards a goal.
When I think of consequences and punishments, I believe that there is a fine line between them both. I would like to think that everything I implement is a consequence, but sometimes I feel as if I am not consistent enough with my consequences. The way I am aware of that is when a student points out that a student broke a rule and I did not provide them with their necessary consequence. When they are enacted, I pull my students to the side, as much as I can, and we do discuss his/her behavior, especially if it involves another student.
The consequences in my class are that if they break a rule, they pull their card and are not given a chance card at the end of the day. If they lose a crayon or need to go to the restroom more then once a day, they give me a chance card. If they do not complete their homework, which includes a reading log, math, and language arts, they stay in during recess to finish. If they do not finish class work and it is left in the unfinished basket until Friday, they do not get to participate in fun Friday, which are minutes accumulated to spend freely on Friday afternoons.
Some of the common problem may be that a student gets excited and shouts out an answer instead of raising his hand, unintentional hits an another student with greater force then he/she should have, is not in line, does not stop talking, will not finish his/her work on time, etc. All of these things are concerns we deal with everyday. It is the rules that are set in place and consequences that will train the students into getting away from those bad habits.
Dealing with Extreme Cases:
For the students who do provide challenges during a lesson, is to take them aside, if time permits, and to talk to them briefly about the situation. Later on when it is recess or lunch, I would approach the student and discuss what happened, the cause of it, the effect, what they would have done differently, how would they have felt, and what they could have done differently. Also, if I could, I would apply it to one of our second step situations if we have already learned about it. If I see that the problem persists, I would ask a colleague in how they would deal with the problem and lastly speak to the school counselor or administrator.
Some of the steps I would take would be to talk over the situation, discuss it with the student, if the problem persists, to set up a contract, and then to create a special role for him/her in class.
Creating a Community and Responsibility:
As I mentioned before, in the beginning of the year I do a lot of activities for students to get to know one another because of the diverse mix up of kids. I do activities for them to know each other’s ages, the school they were in for kindergarten, name and last name, and something cool that no one knows about them. I do it everyday for a week and then we play games to see if everyone remembers each other’s names like around the world. When the students know everyone’s names, it already builds the foundation for a community. The students then learn how to take care of one another and what to do during situations through the example in second step.
In order to promote responsibility I have a classroom helper chart where students have the same job for a week starting on Monday. Some of the jobs are attendance monitor, light monitor, plant monitor, paper and supplies monitor, library helper, etc. The students have the responsibility to do their job throughout the week. If they do not fulfill their duties, they are given a warning, and the second time their job is taken away. They need to learn that they earn the responsibility and need to keep it or else it will be lost. When the jobs are changed the net week, the students do a better job then the first time. I enjoy giving them responsibility because they learn how to work together as a team to get the whole class into a flow.
My goal is to have my classroom function without me having to tell he students to pick up the phone, pass out the papers, collect the scissors, etc. I work very hard in training the students to take care of our classroom as if it truly belonged to them. For example I do not want papers or crayons on the floor, soap around the sink, and their desks in a mess. I explain and show them how to take care of all our classroom supplies.
When I implement the study I would like for the first couple of weeks, just as I am already doing in my classroom, to be a time frame where the student do community-building activities in getting to know each other. I would like for them to know each other based on their likes, experiences, and what they see in their future. After getting to know one another, then we can build on our classroom rules and consequences. As we continue after the rules are created, we would do some role-playing and constant daily reminders of what is expected of them in terms our classroom expectations of one another. As they are constantly reminded, the classroom environment will settle down and the students will know exactly what to do, how to do it, and how to make it their own. This process is reiterated for the first week and slowly eases off as student efficacy reaches the point where I believe reiteration is unnecessary.
As we continue role playing and implementing second step strategies, the students become familiar with my teaching style and instead of me running the entire show, they will slowly be given the responsibility to implement their own needs and wants. At one point in the year the students would feel like they are in control of their learning and I am there as a facilitator to make sure they are on track and learning to the best of their ability.
Fisher, D., Flood, J., Lapp, D., & Frey, N. (2004). Interactive read alouds: Is there a common set of implementation practices? The Reading Teacher, 58(1), 8-17. Retrieved from EBSCOHost Academic Search Premier database.
McGee, L. M., & Schickedanz, J. A. (2007). Repeated interactive read-alouds in preschool and kindergarten. Reading Teacher, 60(8), 742-751. Retrieved from EBSCOHost Academic Search Premier database.
Schindler, J. (2008). Transformative Classroom Management: Creating a climate of responsibility, community and success. Retrieved from WebCT website.