|In addition to the Enzman 400 bipotentiostat used in conjunction with the SECM, we have three computer-driven electrochemical workstation/detectors from CH Instruments. The CHI 832 is a bipotentiostat designed to measure picoampere current and can be used to detect species eluted from liquid chromatography systems or flow injection devices. The CHI 615 is a general-purpose potentiostat in the lab for method development using voltammtry or fast-scan voltammetry. The CHI 440 is a comprehensive electrochemical workstation that includes all the voltammetric techniques. Certain voltammetric techniques can be simultaneously carried out with the measurement of frequency/mass changes at gold-coated quart crystal electrodes (electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance).